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A  Fade  Mecum  of  the  Art  of 
Shooting  with  the  Long  Bow 

Compiled  by 

Published  under  the  auspices  of  the 
National  Archery  Association  of  the 
United  States       :      :      M  C  M  X  V 1 1 


This  book  was  prepared  as  an  act  of 
the  National  Archery  Association  of  the 
United  States,  and  its  publication  authorized 
at  the  annual  meeting  of  that  body  in  1916. 
It  is  made  possible  by  the  efforts  of  its  prin- 
cipal author  and  its  editor,  both  being  Dr. 
Robert  P.  Elmer,  present  and  for  three  years 
past  Champion  archer  of  the  United  States. 
American  and  other  archers  will  be  grateful 
to  Dr.  Elmer,  not  only  for  the  filling  of  the 
great  need  for  any  current  book  at  all  on  the 
sport,  but  for  the  excellence  of  his  own  con- 
tributions and  for  his  diligence  and  discrim- 
ination in  collecting  the  remainder  of  the 

Two  of  the  chapters  are  substantially  of 
matter  once  published  in  Forest  and  Stream. 
Permission  has  been  given  for  its  reprinting 
herein.    We  are  grateful 

The  format,  the  cover,  the  title  page  and 
other  artistic  requirements  of  the  book  have 
been  made  as  they  are  by  the  advice  and 
assistance  of  Mr.  Arthur  N.  Hosking.  We 
hope  they  are  reasonably  to  his  liking;  and 
to  him,  also,  we  are  grateful. 


4  Preface 

The  medallion  used  on  the  cover  and  title 
page  is  from  the  medal  designed  by  Mr. 
Cyrus  E.  Dallin.  This  beautiful  work  of  art 
is  pronounced  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Ameri- 
can Numismatic  Society  to  be  the  best  medal 
ever  produced  in  America.  Frequent  refer- 
ence to  awards  of  its  replicas  as  prizes  will  be 
found  in  this  book. 

Acknowledgement  is  made  of  the  work  of 
the  remaining  authors. 

The  price  of  the  book  will  be  that  necessary 
to  support  its  publication.  The  wider  cur- 
rency it  is  given,  the  lower  the  price  may  be 
made  for  succeeding  editions.  If  a  profit  is 
made,  it  will  be  the  property  of  the  National 
Archery  Association  of  the  United  States. 
That  profit  will  be  expended  for  the  further- 
ance of  the  sport.  Therefore  all  promotion 
of  the  sale  of  this  book  and  the  making  of 
gifts  of  it  will  work  in  a  pleasing  and  profitable 
circle   to   the   good   of  archery  and   archers. 

Verbum  sapienti. 

Samuel  G.  McMeen. 


Chapter  Author  Page 

I.    History  of  American  Archery.    Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer. .     7 

II.    Study  of  Correct  Archery.    Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 21 

III.  Equipment.  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 33 

IV.  Hints  to  Beginners.     Samuel  G.  McMeen 40 

V.    Constitution  of  the  National  Archery  Association  of  the 

United  States 47 

VI.    How  to  Form  an  Archery  Club.    Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer.  63 
VII.    Highest   Official   American    Scores.      Dr.    Edward    B. 

Weston 67 

VIII.    The  Best  English  Scores.    Dr.  Edward  B.  Weston. ...  69 
IX.    Records  of  the  National  Archery  Association  of  the 

United  States.     Dr.  Edward  B.  Weston 73 

X.    The  Thirty-eighth  Annual  Tournament  of  the  National 
Archery  Association  of  the  United  States.    James 

Duff 85 

XI.    The    Eastern    Archery    Association.      Dr.    Robert    P. 

Elmer 103 

XII.    Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds  and  Feats  of  Skill.    Dr.  Robert 

P.  Elmer 114 

XIII.  The  Reddendo  Arrows.    J.  Mark  Mauser 152 

XIV.  Scoring  by  "Points."     Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 156 

XV.    Flight  Shooting.    Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 160 

XVI.  An  American  Origin  for  the  Point  of  Aim.    Dr.  Robert 

P.  Elmer 171 

XVII,  Arrowhead,  the  Archers'  Flower.    Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer .  176 

XVIII.  French  and  Belgian  Archery.    Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer.  .  .  178 

XIX.  Choice  of  Woods  for  Bowmaking.    James  Duff 183 

XX.  Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them.    J.  M.  Challiss 192 

XXI.  Yew  Bow  Making.     Dr.  Harold  G.  Goldberg 220 

XXII.  How  to  Make  a  Bowstring.    L.  W.  Maxson 244 

XXIII.  Notes  on  Arrow  Making.    Z.  E.  Jackson 247 

XXIV.  The  Composite  Bow.     Samuel  G.  McMeen 280 

XXV.  Glossary,  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 285 



History  of  American  Archery 

By  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 

IN  THE  minds  of  Americans  the  concepts 
relating  to  bows  and  arrows  have  two 
widely  different  deii  nations  and  yet,  in  the 
development  of  the  sport  of  archery  in  this 
country,  these  sources  are  so  intermingled 
that  it  cannot  be  said  which  has  had  the  more 
potent  influence.  From  prehistoric  times  to 
the  present  day  the  American  Indians,  though 
in  constantly  decreasing  numbers,  have  used 
bows  and  arrows  as  their  chief  means  of 
procuring  food  and  as  valuable  weapons  in 
war.  Filled  with  tales  of  the  frontier,  boys 
without  number  have  fashioned  primitive 
imitations  of  the  redman's  equipment  and  have 
endeavored  to  emulate  his  prowess  in  the 
hunt  and  on  the  war-path.  On  the  other 
hand  the  white  man  inherits  legends  of  the 
bow  from  mediaeval  Europe,  with  Robin 
Hood  standing  first  in  his  imagination  and 
behind  him  the  archers  of  Crecy,  Agincourt, 
the  Wars  of  the  Roses  and  the  Norman  Con- 

'8"  '  American  Archery 

quest,  with  hosts  of  others  whom  his  reading 
of  history  and  romance  have  furnished.  More 
distant  still  are  the  classic  bowmen  of  Greece 
and  of  the  vanished  empires  of  Africa  and 

These  two  streams  of  inspiration  flowed 
together  in  the  formation  of  the  first  archery 
club  in  America  of  which  we  have  any  record. 
"The  United  Bowmen  of  Philadelphia"  was 
founded  in  1828  by  Titian  Ramsey  Peale. 
This  young  man,  born  in  1800,  was  a  member 
of  the  famous  family  of  artists  of  that  name, 
and  to  secure  drawings  of  the  wild  life  of  our 
West*  he  had  accompanied,  as  assistant 
naturalist,  the  United  States  expedition  under 
Major  Long  which  explored  the  region  from 
the  Mississippi  to  the  Rocky  Mountains  in 
1819.  From  the  Indians  he  had  learned  a 
love  for  the  bow  which  he  cherished  until,  a 
few  years  later,  it  led  him  to  gather  together 
five  friends  and  start  the  club.  To  harmonize 
the  sport  with  the  conditions  of  civilization 
they  were  obliged  to  take  as  patterns  the 
organizations  already  existing  in  England. 

That  "The  United  Bowmen"  was  prosper- 
ous is  well  proven.  Its  membership  was 
limited   to   25    and,    in   all   the   years   of   its 

History  of  American  Archery  9 

existence  a  total  of  57  had  joined.  They  must 
have  presented  a  brave  appearance  as  they 
stood  in  line,  for  they  shot  from  under  a 
long  pavilion  which  was  supported  by  25 
poles,  from  each  of  which  flew  the  flag  of 
the  archer  beside  it,  and  they  were  dressed  in 
frock  coats  of  Lincoln  green,  ornamented  with 
gold  braid,  broad  straw  hats  covered  with 
green  cloth  and  turned  up  with  three  black 
ostrich  plumes,  black  belts  and  white  panta- 
loons. The  club  published  a  little  book  called 
"The  Archer's  Manual,"  copies  of  which  may 
still  be  found  in  public  libraries.  Its  annual 
competitions  were  attended  by  as  many  as  two 
thousand  spectators,  and  not  until  1858  did  it 
stage  its  last  contest. 

In  1888  the  surviving  members  met  for 
the  last  time  and  deposited  their  trophies 
and  archives  with  the  Pennsylvania  Historical 
Society,  where  they  may  now  be  seen.  The 
trophies  are  in  a  showcase  which  can  be  opened 
only  by  breaking  the  glass.  Chief  among 
them  is  a  superb  punch  bowl,  awarded 
annually  to  the  champion.  His  name  was 
engraved  on  a  tag  suspended  from  the  rim 
and  he  was  expected  to  embellish  the  outside 
with   a   heavy,   silver   acanthus   leaf.     Other 

IO  American  Archery 

trophies  are  a  silver  goblet  for  the  second 
man,  a  smaller  goblet  for  the  man  who  made 
the  hit  nearest  the  center  and  a  brooch  for 
the  sixth  man.  Strangely  enough  the  third, 
fourth  and  fifth  men  received  nothing. 

In  1859  the  secretary  wrote:  "No  grounds, 
no  shooting."  After  that  came  the  stirring 
events  preceding  the  onset  of  the  Civil  War 
and  archery  suddenly  ceased,  to  remain  in 
desuetude  for  twenty  years. 

Its  revival  then  was  very  similar  to  its 
origin,  for  again  a  young  man  hunted  among 
the  Indians  and  afterward  introduced  the 
sport  to  civilization.  Maurice  Thompson,  a 
young  Confederate  veteran  who,  in  the  closing 
days  of  the  war,  had  been  wounded  in  the 
chest,  returned  to  his  home  in  Georgia  only 
to  find  it  in  ruins.  Ordered  by  his  doctor  to 
an  open  air  life  in  a  still  warmer  climate,  and 
too  reduced  in  circumstances  to  live  by  other 
than  his  own  efforts,  he  and  his  brother  Will 
H.  Thompson  journeyed  to  Florida  and  there 
encamped  with  an  Indian  guide.  Fire-arms 
were  forbidden  them  because  of  their  recent 
belligerency,  so  they  made  crude  bows  and 
arrows.  With  practice  they  became  excellent 
shots,  game  was  superabundant,  and  as  their 

History  of  American  Archery  n 

skill  in  hunting  increased  they  also  learned 
to  fashion  better  weapons. 

Fortunately  Maurice  Thompson  was  "a 
writer  as  well  as  a  fighter"  and  a  few  years 
later,  in  1877  and  1878,  he  published  a  series 
of  articles  in  Scribner's  Magazine  which 
related,  in  exquisite  prose,  his  experiences  in 
the  woods  and  which,  soon  afterwards,  were 
collected  in  a  volume  named  "The  Witchery 
of  Archery."  People  at  that  time  had  no 
other  lawn  sport  than  croquet  and  they  eagerly 
welcomed  this  more  active  exercise.  Archery 
clubs  sprang  into  existence  as  though  by 
magic  all  over  the  United  States,  armed  with 
anything  from  Indian  weapons  to  the  finest 
imported  English  goods. 

The  Chicago  Archery  Association  conceived 
the  idea  of  coordinating  all  this  energy  and 
so  they  issued  a  call  for  a  convention  of 
archery  societies  to  meet  at  Crawfordsville, 
Indiana,  where  Maurice  Thompson  was  then 
living,  to  consider  the  propriety  of  creating 
a  National  Archery  Association  for  the  United 
States  of  America.  The  meeting  was  held  on 
January  23rd,  1879,  in  the  office  of  the  mayor, 
and  was  attended  by  representatives  of  clubs 
in  eight  cities.     The  organization  was  duly 

12  American  Archery 

effected,  with  Maurice  Thompson  as  ^presi- 
dent, and  it  was  voted  to  hold  the  first  Grand 
National  Tournament  at  Chicago,  for  three 
days  in  August,  1879. 

This  tournament  took  place,  as  ordered,  at 
White  Stocking  Park,  now  a  part  of  Grant 
Park.  Archers  gathered  from  far  and  near, 
armed  with  material  of  every  description, 
to  the  number  of  89,  a  record  of  attendance 
which  still  remains  unbroken.  A  brass  band 
furnished  music,  caddies  collected  the  arrows 
while  the  luxurious  archers  sipped  refresh- 
ments, Society,  in  force,  lent  the  glamor  of 
its  presence  and  about  two  thousand  dollars 
worth  of  prizes,  in  cash,  medals  and  mer- 
chandise, was  competed  for.  Precedents  were 
established  of  deciding  the  Championship  by 
the  Double  York  Round,  the  Woman's  Cham- 
pionship by  the  Double  Columbia  Round,  and 
the  Men's  Team  Championship  by  the  Ameri- 
can Round.  The  names  of  the  winners  of 
the  chief  events  in  this  and  the  succeeding 
tournaments  can  be  found  in  the  tables 
elsewhere.  Of  the  participants  the  only  one 
who  are  known  to  be  still  shooting  are  G.  F. 
Henry  and  Tacitus  Hussey,  of  Des  Moines, 
Will  H.  Thompson,  of  Seattle,  and  Dr.  E.  B. 

History  of  American  Archery  13 

Weston,  of  Tropico,  California,  but  until 
recently  of  Chicago.  Homer  S.  Taylor,  who 
is  still  one  of  the  most  skillful  archers  in  the 
country,  was  present  as  a  spectator. 

The  chief  effect  of  this  tournament  was  the 
general  recognition  of  the  N.  A.  A.  as  the 
center  of  influence  in  archery  and  of  its  annual 
tournament  as  the  one  preeminent  archery 
event  of  the  year. 

The  next  two  meetings  were  held  in  Buffalo 
and  Brooklyn.  They  were  both  very  success- 
ful but,  after  that  time,  interest  in  the  game 
seemed  to  become  centralized  in  Chicago, 
Washington  and  Cincinnati  and  the  succeed- 
ing tournaments  were  held  either  in  those 
cities  or  in  places  which  might  be  considered 
as  tributaries  of  them. 

Changes  in  the  program  were  made  as 
experience  widened.  In  1881  the  ladies  began 
to  shoot  the  Double  National  Round,  as 
practiced  in  England,  and  thenceforward 
the  championship  was  decided  by  that,  instead 
of  by  the  Double  Columbia  Round.  Flight 
shooting  was  introduced  in  1882  and,  in  the 
same  year,  the  Team  Contest  was  changed 
from  a  single  American  Round  to  its  present 
form.     The  Team  Contest  for  ladies  was  72 

14  American  Archery 

arrows  at  40  yards,  in  1882  and  1883  and  as 
at  present,  thereafter.  In  1883  the  Double 
American  Round  was  invented,  for  the  pleas- 
ure of  those  who  did  not  care  for  the  long 
range  shooting,  and  the  winner  was  recognized 
as  the  American  Round  Champion,  although 
he  was  always  acknowledged  to  be  inferior  in 
rank  to  the  York  Round  Champion. 

During  the  last  decade  of  the  nineteenth 
century  the  great  popularity  of  tennis,  cycling, 
and  other  fascinating  sports  did  much  to 
overshadow  the  lustre  of  archery,  yet  clubs 
continued  to  flourish,  here  and  there,  the 
annual  tournaments  were  always  held  and 
the  marksmanship  of  the  contestants  at  them 
was  almost  uniformly  meritorious.  Until 
1902  the  chief  stars  were  Maxson,  Williams, 
W.  A.  Clark  and  W.  H.  Thompson  among  the 
men  and  Mrs.  Howell  and  Mrs.  Phillips 
among  the  ladies.  The  only  records  that 
survive  from  that  period  are  the  Flight  Shot  of 
290  yards,  by  Maxson,  the  Single  National  of 
68-398,  by  Mrs.  Howell  and  the  Double 
National  of  132-756,  also  by  her. 

The  year  1903  marks  an  epoch  in  archery 
in  that  it  saw  the  return  to  the  game  of  Dr. 
E.    B.    Weston,   of   Chicago.      When   it   was 

History  of  American  Archery  15 

decided  that  archery  should  have  a  place  on 
the  program  of  the  Olympic  Games,  to  be 
held  in  St.  Louis  in  1904,  it  was  found  that 
there  was  no  one  in  the  Middle  West  who 
was  qualified  to  take  the  matter  in  charge. 
In  this  predicament  Dr.  Weston  was  per- 
suaded to  devote  his  energies  to  reviving  the 
sport  in  that  part  of  the  country  and  he  set 
about  it  with  such  vigor  and  persistence  that 
his  name  is  honored  by  every  archer.  After 
a  rest  of  19  years  he  shot  at  the  tournament 
of  1903,  at  Niagara  Falls,  with  amusing  results. 
He  himself  delights  in  telling  that  out  of  72 
arrows  at  100  yards  he  made  2-8,  thus 
challenging  the  record  of  John  Wilkinson  who 
had  made  1-9  in  the  previous  year. 

About  this  time,  partly  because  of  the 
Olympic  Games,  the  spirit  of  vitality  in 
archery  became  renascent  and  each  succeeding 
year  has  seen  it  grow  more  robust.  The 
1904  tournament  was  held  in  the  stadium  at 
St.  Louis  and  the  shooting  was  done  in  a 
sea  of  mud.  It  had  rained  for  fifteen  hours 
before  the  contest  began,  so  that  it  was  nec- 
essary to  furnish  the  archers  with  planks  to 
stand  on.  At  the  end  of  the  four  days  shooting 
some  were  still  using  them.     During  these 

1 6  American  Archery 

two  years  the  future  champions  Bryant  and 
Richardson  first  appeared  in  competition. 

In  1905  the  tournament  was  held  in 
Chicago,  with  the  largest  entrance  list  since 
1889.  Numerous  archers  of  former  days 
returned  to  the  sport  and  new  ones  of  great 
promise  became  interested. 

In  1906  a  successful  meeting  was  held  at 
Boston  and  then  for  five  years  the  archers 
mustered  at  Chicago,  mainly  for  the  reason 
that  Dr.  Weston  was  willing  to  do  all  the  hard 
work.  While  all  these  meetings  were  on  a 
high  plane,  in  every  particular,  that  of  1910 
is  chiefly  memorable,  for  there,  shooting  in  a 
high  wind,  Harry  B.  Richardson  made  the 
American  records  of  116-566  for  the  Single 
York  Round  and  231-1111  for  the  Double 
York  Round.  In  the  Grand  National  of 
England  this  has  been  exceeded  only  once, 
in  1857,  when  Ford  made  the  world's  record 
of  245-1251. 

At  the  end  of  this  quinquennial  it  became 
apparent  that  the  increasing  number  of  archers 
in  the  East  deserved  recognition  and  so  191 2 
saw  a  highly  successful  tournament  held  at 
Boston,  under  the  presidency  of  a  new  and 
enthusiastic  archer,  B.  P.  Gray.     The  range 

History  of  American  Archery  17 

was  laid  out  on  the  athletic  field  of  Harvard 
University  and  luncheon  was  served  in  the 
adjacent  stadium.  The  shooting  was  excep- 
tionally good.  G.  P.  Bryant  made  230-1094 
in  the  Double  York  Round,  thus  getting  four 
figures  for  the  second  time  in  America,  and 
he  created  the  present  records  for  the  Single 
and  Double  American  Rounds  with  90-618 
and  1 77-1 153.  For  the  first  time  three  con- 
testants got  over  1000  in  the  Double  American 
Round.     > 

In  1913  Boston  was  the  host  again.  The 
only  noteworthy  performance  this  year  was 
Mrs.  Bryant's  record  flight  shot  of  251  yards 
and  2/10  foot. 

Since  1910  considerable  interest  in  archery 
had  been  developing  in  some  of  the  suburbs 
of  Philadelphia,  along  the  main  line  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Railroad,  so  it  was  voted  to 
accept  an  invitation  from  the  Merion  Cricket 
Club  at  Haverford,  to  hold  the  1914  tourna- 
ment there. 

The  spacious  house  of  this  fashionable  club 
offered  every  convenience  to  the  archers  and 
the  velvet  lawn,  backed  by  stately  trees, 
made  a  setting  for  the  targets  which  has 
never  been  excelled  in  beauty.    Although  the 

1 8  American  Archery 

entry  list  was  unusually  large,  no  important 
records  were  broken.  The  most  interesting 
feature  was  the  Double  Columbia  Round 
which  was  so  closely  contested  that  the 
relative  position  of  the  first  three  ladies 
depended  on  the  last  arrow. 

Three  successive  tournaments  in  the  East 
made  it  seem  advisable  to  revisit  Chicago  in 
191 5.  This  meeting  was  handicapped  by 
execrable  weather.  A  wet  chilling  wind, 
such  as  is  only  too  common  in  Chicago, 
swept  in  continually  from  the  lake  and  on 
the  last  day  there  suddenly  descended  a  deluge 
as  though  the  flood  gates  of  heaven  had  burst. 
In  a  few  minutes  the  field  was  ankle  deep 
with  water,  making  it  necessary  to  strike 
from  the  program  all  the  events  scheduled  for 
that  day.  In  spite  of  the  bad  conditions 
Miss  Wesson  made  the  records  of  72-510  for 
the  Single  Columbia  Round  and  144-998  for 
the  Double  Columbia  Round.  She  was 
shooting  in  such  wonderful  form  that  with 
better  weather  the  national  records  would 
undoubtedly  have  been  in  serious  danger. 

In  archery  there  is  no  line  between  profes- 
sionals and  amateurs,  so  the  members  of  the 
N.  A.  A.  were  able  to  express  their  unanimous 

History  of  American  Archery  19 

choice  by  electing  James  Duff,  our  popular 
fletcher,    to   be    president   for   the   following 
year,  in  which  the  tournament  was  held  in 
his  home  town  of  Jersey  City.     The  Scottish 
American  Archers  and  the  Clan  McLeod  took 
the  big  event  under  their  canny  guidance  and 
the  delightful  result  is  fresh '  in  the  grateful 
memories  of  us  all.    Although  the  attendance 
was   very   satisfactory   it   would    have   been 
much  larger  had  it  not  been  for  the  appre- 
hension produced  by  the  great  epidemic  of 
infantile  paralysis  in  the  neighboring  cities  of 
Newark    and    New    York.      However,    the 
shooting  throughout  was  of  a  very  high  grade. 
For  the  second  time  three  men  passed  the 
thousand    mark    in    the    Double    American 
Round,  for  the  third   time  the  four  figures 
were  obtained  in  the  Double  York  Round  and 
the  flight  shot  was  within  six  inches  of  the 
record.    The  comfort  of  the  archers  was  pro- 
vided for  in  every  way,  particularly  by  a  long 
awning  for  the  ladies  to  stand  under  while 
shooting,  a  feature  which  recalled  the  pavilion 
of  the  United  Bowmen  of  Philadelphia. 

At  the  closing  banquet  about  forty  braw 
Scots  appeared  in  full  Highland  costume, 
their  bows  and  arrows  replaced  by  dirk  and 

20  American  Archery 

skean-dhu.  Here  good-fellowship  reigned  su- 
preme until  the  piper  had  squeezed  the  last 
tune  through  his  chanter  and  the  whole 
assembly,  with  arms  crossed  and  hands  clasp- 
ed, had  fervently  sung  "Auld  Lang  Syne." 

Study  of  Correct  Archery  21 


Study  of  Correct  Archery 
By  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 

WHEN  Roger  Ascham,  in  1542,  wrote 
Toxophilus,  "this  Englishe  matter  in 
the  Englishe  tongue  for  Englishe  men,"  he  set 
the  fashion  for  all  future  writers  on  archery  by 
dividing  the  act  of  shooting  with  the  long-bow 
into  five  parts,  which  he  called,  in  the  order 
of  their  occurrence,  Standing,  Nocking,  Draw- 
ing, Holding  and  Loosing.  As  each  of  these 
is  a  step  which  must  be  mastered  separately 
before  the  archer  can  rise  to  a  plane  of  merit, 
I  will  still  follow,  in  this  short  thesis,  the 
"Scholemaster's"  classic  lead.  At  the  same 
time  I  will  try  to  present  to  the  novice  such 
other  directions  that  he  may  know  what  to 
do  from  the  moment  he  steps  to  the  Shooting 
line  till  the  arrow  is  quivered  in  its  mark. 

First  of  all  he  should  study,  with  great 
care,  the  Constitution  of  the  National  Archery 
Association  and,  so  far  as  possible,  conform 
his  shooting  to  its  rules.  After  that,  let  us 
hope  he  may  find  what  follows  a  guide  to 
help  him  in  practical  shooting. 

22  American  Archery 

The  six  arrows,  to  be  shot  at  one  end,  may- 
be carried  on  the  person,  in  a  quiver  or  trouser's 
pocket,  or  they  may  be  stood  on  the  ground 
in  front  of  the  archer  in  some  kind  of  recep- 

To  string  the  bow,  grasp  its  handle  with  the 
left  hand,  the  back  of  the  bow  being  upper- 
most, and  place  the  lower  end,  just  above  the 
tip,  against  the  hollow  of  the  left  foot.  Place 
the  "heel"  of  the  right  hand  against  the 
upper  end  of  the  bow,  below  the  loop  of  the 
string,  and  take  the  loop  lightly  between  the 
thumb  and  forefinger.  Then,  holding  the  left 
hand  steady,  push  hard  with  the  right, 
letting  it  slide  toward  the  nock  and  carrying 
the  loop  up  till  it  falls  into  its  groove.  All 
pressure  should  be  exerted  on  the  bow,  not 
on  the  string.  To  unstring  the  bow,  bend  it  in 
the  same  way  and  pick  the  string  out,  lightly, 
with  the  first  finger. 

The  correct  stand  is  very  important.  In 
archery  one  does  not  toe  the  mark,  he  straddles 
it.  The  heels  should  be  about  nine  inches 
apart  in  the  line  the  arrow  is  to  follow,  the 
archer,  therefore,  standing  with  his  left  side 
toward  the  target.  The  feet  may  be  either  in 
their  natural  position  or,   as  taught  by  Dr. 

Study  of  Correct  Archery  23 

Weston,  the  left  foot  may  be  at  right  angles 
to  the  line  of  the  heels  and  the  right  foot 
point  about  forty-five  degrees  backwards. 
The  weight  should  be  borne  evenly  by  both 

The  body  should  be  perfectly  erect. 

The  position  of  the  head  must  vary  some- 
what with  the  individual.  Classically,  it 
should  first  be  erect,  as  with  a  soldier  at 
"Attention,"  and  then  turned  sharply  to  the 
left  so  that  the  target  is  seen  over  the  left 
shoulder.  Yet  for  some  people  it  is  necessary 
to  crane  the  neck,  or  tilt  the  head  slightly, 
in  order  to  provide  for  two  essentials  in  arch- 
ery, one,  that  the  nock  of  the  arrow  be 
directly  under  the  right  eye,  and  the  other 
that  there  be  a  clear  way  for  the  string. 
Many  archers,  especially  ladies,  find  that  in 
the  orthodox  position  the  string  hits  the  left 
arm,  elbow,  shoulder  or  chest,  causing  great 
pain  and  ruining  the  shot.  Such  people  must 
hold  the  shoulder  well  down  and  back  and 
sometimes  must  even  face  slightly  toward  the 
target,  changing  the  position  of  the  feet 

To  nock  the  arrow,  grasp  the  bow-handle 
exactly  as  it  will  be  held  in  shooting,  the  hand 

24  American  Archery 

being  even  with  the  top  of  the  handle,  and 
hold  the  bow  horizontal.  Take  the  arrow  by 
the  nock,  with  the  thumb  and  forefinger,  and 
lay  it  on  the  bow,  just  touching  the  hand. 
Then  fit  it  to  the  string,  with  the  cock  feather 
out,  at  exactly  right  angles,  remembering  that 
this  relation  is  to  the  string  and  not  to  the  bow, 
which  may  be  crooked.  During  this  opera- 
tion the  arrow  may  be  steadied  by  the  left 
fore  finger,  but  it  is  not  at  all  necessary  to 
do  so. 

To  draw  the  bow,  hook  the  first  three 
fingers  under  the  string  (the  bow  still  being 
horizontal),  with  the  arrow  between  the 
first  and  second,  so  that  the  string  rests  on 
the  middle  of  the  pads  of  the  first  joints. 
Then,  turning  the  bow  to  a  vertical  position, 
raise  the  left  arm  stiffly,  with  elbow  locked, 
straight  away  from  the  body,  like  a  pump- 
handle,  till  the  hand  is  level  with  the  chin. 
Regarding  the  grip  on  the  bow-handle  there  is 
a  difference  of  opinion.  Most  authors  say 
to  grasp  it  with  all  one's  strength  but,  person- 
ally, I  prefer  a  very  loose  grip,  the  arm,  and 
wrist  however,  being  stiff  as  steel.  The 
reason  is  derived  from  the  fact,  experimentally 
proven,  that  when  a  bow  is  held  in  a  vise  the 

Study  of  Correct  Archery  25 

arrow  will  fly  far  to  the  left.  In  shooting  by 
hand  an  arrow  goes  straight  because  it  pushes 
the  bow  a  fraction  of  an  inch  to  the  right  and, 
obviously,  this  can  be  done  more  freely  when 
the  grip  is  loose  than  when  it  is  tight.  After 
thus  elevating  the  bow  proceed,  with  such 
quick  movements  as  to  save  one's  strength  for 
the  aiming,  to  draw  the  string  back  so  that 
the  pile  rests  on  the  hand  and  the  nock  is 
directly  under  the  right  eye,  not  necessarily 
near  that  organ  but  somewhere,  on  the  face 
or  neck,  in  the  vertical  line  dropped  from  it. 
At  every  shot,  no  matter  what  distance  from 
the  target,  the  arrow  must  be  drawn  to  its 
full  length  and  held  there,  until  loosed,  with- 
out being  allowed  to  creep  forward  so  much 
as  an  eighth  of  an  inch.  In  drawing,  keep 
the  elbow  free  from  the  body  and  fully  as 
high  as  the  hand.  This  allows  the  powerful 
muscles  of  the  shoulder  and  shoulder-blade 
to  do  most  of  the  pulling  and  makes  one  feel 
that  he  "puts  his  body  into  the  bow,"  as 
Bishop  Hugh  Latimer  expressed  it.  The 
hand  must  follow  in  the  line  of  the  arrow, 
bending  sharply  from  the  forearm  at  the  wrist. 
The  arrow  must  next  be  aimed,  and  the 
majority  of  archers  do  this  with  both  eyes 

26  American  Archery 

open.  There  are  many,  however,  who  close 
the  left  eye.  It  is  probable  that  in  target 
shooting  one  way  is  as  good  as  the  other,  but 
in  hunting  it  is  quite  necessary  to  use  both 
eyes  in  order  to  judge  distance.  A  beginner 
will  often  find,  to  his  surprise,  when  his 
arrows  are  missing  by  wide  margins,  that  he 
is  not  sighting  with  the  right  eye,  as  he  thinks 
he  is,  but,  inadvertently,  is  catching  the  aim 
with  the  left.  In  such  a  case  he  must  shut 
the  left  eye  until  his  vision  be  straightened 

The  most  difficult  thing  in  aiming  and, 
indeed,  in  all  archery,  is  the  control  of  the 
nock  end  of  the  arrow.  The  tip  can  be  seen, 
and  its  position  accurately  adjusted,  but  the 
rear  end,  which  is  just  as  important,  must  be 
controlled  entirely  by  touch.  Thus,  some 
archers  draw  to  the  angle  of  the  jaw,  some  to 
the  corner  of  the  mouth,  some  to  a  tooth 
(felt  through  the  lip),  some  to  the  Adam's 
Apple  and  some  to  the  end  of  the  collar-bone 
but  everyone,  who  wishes  to  shoot  well, 
must  find  some  part  of  his  facial  or  cervical 
anatomy,  in  the  line  below  the  right  eye,  to 
which  he  can  always  draw  the  nock  with 
unfailing  precision. 

Study  of  Correct  Archery  27 

The  right  hand  being  immovably  fixed  it 
follows  that  all  variations  in  aim  must  be 
made  by  altering  the  position  of  the  left 
hand,  in  either  vertical  or  horizontal  direc- 
tions. This  means  that  one  must  bear  in 
mind  two  things,  the  line  to  the  target, 
which  is  easily  found  by  sighting  along  the 
shaft,  and  the  elevation  of  the  arrow.  "  Eleva- 
tion" means  the  height  of  the  tip  with  rela- 
tion to  the  nock  and  is  what  determines  the 
distance  the  shaft  will  fly.  Forty-five  degrees 
will  give  the  greatest  trajectory  but  much 
less  is  required  for  ordinary  shooting.  To  get 
the  correct  elevation,  and  have  it  the  same 
for  each  succeeding  arrow,  one  must  make 
use  of  an  expedient  originated  by  Horace 
Ford  and  called  by  him  "The  Point  of  Aim." 
The  meaning  of  this  term  may  be  explained 
as  follows. 

When  the  arrow  is  fully  drawn,  and  pointed 
in  the  line  toward  the  target,  the  archer 
raises  his  left  hand  as  much  as  his  judgment 
directs  and  then,  sighting  over  the  tip  of  the 
pile,  notes  what  his  gaze  falls  on.  Perhaps 
it  is  a  dandelion,  a  lump  of  earth,  a  cloud  or 
some  other  object.  If,  when  shot  from  this 
elevation,  the  arrow  hit  the  target,  the  object 

28  American  Archery 

which  the  archer  sees  over  his  tip  is  his  point 
of  aim  and  he  can  get  the  correct  trajectory 
for  all  his  subsequent  arrows  by  sighting 
their  tips  on  that  same  point.  If  his  arrow 
go  too  low,  he  must  take  a  point  of  aim 
farther  away,  if  too  high,  one  nearer  to  him- 
self. For  most  archers  the  point  of  aim  at 
ioo  yards  is  high  in  the  sky  and  consequently 
impossible  to  find  on  certain  shooting  grounds. 
A  special  method  of  aiming,  devised  for  this 
distance,  is  to  paint  a  small  white  or  black 
ring  on  the  arrow,  so  placed  that,  when  the 
elevation  is  right,  the  ring  will  be  in  line 
between  the  eye  and  the  target.  This  is  a 
good  way  but  it  requires  considerable  practice 
because,  while  the  target  is  visible  to  the  left 
eye,  it  is  concealed  from  the  right  eye  by 
the  bow-hand.  If,  however,  both  eyes  be 
kept  open  and  the  gaze  centered  fixedly  on 
the  target,  there  will  be  produced  an  optical 
illusion  of  looking  through  the  bow-hand, 
with  the  ring  on  the  arrow  seen  vaguely  by 
indirect  vision. 

Authorities  differ  as  to  whether,  in  shooting 
at  the  shorter  ranges,  the  gaze  should  be 
centered  on  the  target,  with  the  point  of  aim 
seen    by    indirect    vision,    or    whether    the 

Study  of  Correct  Archery  29 

latter  should  be  in  primary  focus  and  the 
former  seen  only  vaguely.  Probably  either 
way  is  correct,  provided  the  archer  be  con- 
sistent and  do  not  let  his  eye  wander. 

Holding  is  really  a  part  of  aiming.  It 
refers  to  the  time  in  which  the  arrow  is  held 
motionless  just  prior  to  the  instant  of  flight, 
when  that  final  coordination  of  eye  and 
muscle  is  effected  which  is  the  acme  of 
refined  technique.  Roger  Ascham  taught  that 
this  moment  should  be  so  brief  as  to  be 
"  better  perceived  in  the  mind  than  seen  with 
the  eye."  Nevertheless,  I  have  noticed  that 
all  the  best  shots  in  this  country  hold  until 
they  are  perfectly  certain  that  their  aim  is 
accurate  and  that  all  else  is  as  it  should  be. 
In  this  connection  I  would  say  that  a  valuable, 
but  difficult,  thing  to  learn  is  to  relax  the 
string,  without  loosing  the  arrow,  and  begin 
the  shot  again  when  one  feels  that  some- 
thing is  wrong.  The  frequent  remark,  "I 
knew  that  was  not  right  before  I  shot  it,"  is 
a  reproach  to  the  archer. 

If  the  archer  has  nocked,  drawn,  aimed  and 
held  his  arrow  precisely  as  he  has  been 
directed  to  do  he  is  now  ready  for  the  final 
act  which  frees  the  shaft  from  his   control 

30  American  Archery 

and  leaves  it  to  be  guided  only  by  the  laws 
of  physics.  Of  all  things  in  the  art  of  shooting 
loosing  is  the  most  important.  Without  a 
good  loose  all  that  has  been  done  before 
counts  for  naught.  I  emphasize  this  par- 
ticularly because  most  beginners  seem  to 
think  that  the  aim  is  everything,  forgetting 
that  the  flight  of  the  arrow  depends  wholly 
on  its  position  at  the  moment  when  it  finally 
quits  the  string  and  on  the  propulsive  force 
behind  it,  and  that  both  of  these  factors 
may  be  ruined  by  the  slightest  side  pull  or 
sluggishness  in  loosing.  To  secure  a  good 
loose  remember  that  the  string  must  be  borne 
on  the  first  pad  of  each  finger,  and  never 
hooked  in  the  joint  itself.  Furthermore,  the 
weight  of  the  pull  must  be  even  on  each 
finger.  Usually  the  third  finger  has  a  tend- 
ency to  carry  most  of  the  strain  and  the 
second  much  less,  while  the  first  finger  takes 
up  its  share  of  the  burden  so  reluctantly  that 
it  has  been  nicknamed,  by  Will  Thompson, 
"The  Shirking  First." 

The  ideal  loose  is  the  one  that  liberates 
the  string  with  a  minimum  of  disturbance 
and  retains  the  full  tension  of  the  bow  up 
to  the  very  last.     It  cannot  be  obtained  by 

Study  of  Correct  Archery  31 

plucking  the  fingers  off  the  string,  as  a  harper 
twangs  his  instrument,  because  that  would 
disconcert  the  aim.  Neither  will  it  suffice 
simply  to  open  the  fingers  and  let  the  string 
escape,  for  then  the  cast  of  the  bow  is  lessened. 
The  best  way  is  to  stiffen  the  arm  still  further, 
by  a  pull  of  the  muscles  that  connect  the 
shoulder-blade  with  the  shoulder,  as  though 
one  were  continuing  to  draw,  while  the  string 
is  allowed  to  roll,  at  the  same  identical  mo- 
ment of  time,  off  the  tips  of  the  three  fingers. 
It  seems  to  me  that  Ascham  should  have 
added  to  his  description  of  shooting  a  sixth 
division,  which  he  might  have  called  pausing, 
for,  after  the  string  has  left  the  hand,  the 
archer  must  stand,  for  a  moment,  like  a 
statue,  in  the  exact  pose  that  he  held  at  the 
instant  of  loosing.  Otherwise  he  will  find  it 
impossible  to  keep  the  muscles  at  precisely 
the  same  tension  while  the  arrow  is  crossing 
the  bow.  The  left  hand  must  not  drop  an 
iota  and  the  right  hand  must  remain  resting 
firmly  against  the  spot  it  has  been  drawn  to. 
The  best  index  at  this  point  is  the  right 
elbow.  If  it  has  not  dropped  even  a  small 
fraction  of  an  inch,  the  loose  will  probably 
have  been  a  good  one. 

32  American  Archery 

In  conclusion  I  would  say  that  in  no  sport 
is  the  need  of  exactness  in  detail  greater  than 
it  is  in  archery  and,  also,  that  the  practice 
which  leads  to  virtuosity  consists  not  so  much 
in  mere  frequency  of  shooting  as  in  the  careful 
study  of  every  shaft  that  is  sped. 

Equipment  33 


By  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 

THE  beginner  will  find  the  following  in- 
structions helpful  to  him  in  selecting 
his  equipment,  or  "Artillery"  in  the  original 
meaning  of  the  word. 


Of  all  things  in  the  equipment  of  the  archer 
the  most  important  is  the  arrow.  Unless 
every  shaft  be  perfect  and  exactly  like  its 
fellows  it  is  impossible  to  shoot  well,  no 
matter  how  good  the  rest  of  the  tackle 

Arrows  may  be  plain  or  footed.  The  former 
are  made  of  one  piece  of  wood  and  are  fit 
only  for  toys.  The  latter  have  a  shaft  of 
soft  wood  with  a  "foot,"  or  piece  of  hard 
wood,  spliced  on  the  pile  end.  This  foot 
balances  the  arrow,  so  that  it  has  a  better 

*Note. — It  used  to  be  that  archery  goods  made  in  England  were 
much  better  than  those  made  in  America.  Of  late  years,  however, 
our  domestic  products  have  been  so  much  improved  that  now  they 
fully  equal,  if  they  do  not  even  surpass,  the  foreign  makes. 

34  American  Archery 

flight,  and  also  makes  it  much  less  liable  to 
break.  The  shaft  should  be  Douglas  fir,  spruce 
or  Norway  Pine.  The  foot  may  be  of  any 
strong,  heavy  wood. 

The  pile,  or  point,  of  the  arrow  should  be 
in  the  shape  of  a  cylinder  with  a  bev- 
elled end. 

The  nock,  or  slotted  piece  for  the  string, 
may  be  of  fibre,  horn  or  aluminum.  The  first 
two  are  wedge-shaped  and  set  into  the  wood. 
The  aluminum  nocks  are  fitted  over  the  end, 
like  ferrules,  and  may  be  either  tubular,  as 
patented  in  England  by  Aldred,  or  cut  from 
the  solid  bar,  as  used  in  America  by  Duff. 
Metal  nocks  are  less  apt  to  be  injured  when 
hit  by  another  arrow,  than  are  those  of  horn 
or  fibre;  the  solid  nocks  are  stronger  than  the 

The  best  feathers  are  from  the  turkey. 
They  should  be  stiff  and  cut  to  exactly  the 
same  shape.  White,  or  brilliantly  colored 
feathers,  are  better  than  those  of  sombre 
hues  because  they  can  be  seen  more  readily 
in  the  grass. 

Men's  arrows  should  be  28  inches  long, 
although  a  very  tall  or  short  man  may 
require  an  inch  more  or  less  than  that.  They 

Equipment  3  5 

should  weigh  from  300  to  420  grains,  in  pro- 
portion to  the  strength  of  the  bow.  English 
arrows  are  marked  in  shillings;  equivalent 
to   87X  grains  to  the  shilling. 

Women's  arrows  should  be  25  inches  long 
and  should  weigh  from  277  grains  to  341 


The  parts  of  the  bow  are  named  as  follows : 
Back,  Belly,  Upper  Limb,  Lower  Limb, 
Handle  and  Nocks.  Bows  are  of  two  kinds, 
self  and  backed.  A  self  bow  is  made  either 
of  one  long  stave  or  of  two  short  staves  spliced 
at  the  handle.  Backed  bows  are  made  of 
two  or  more  strips  of  wood  glued  together, 
either  continuous  or  spliced.  By  this  means 
the  back  can  be  made  of  raw-hide,  or  more 
often,  of  some  wood  possessing  great  tensile 
strength,  like  hickory  or  the  sap-wood  of 
yew,  while  the  belly  is  made  of  a  soft  wood 
capable  of  high  resiliency  under  com- 
pression stress.  Belgian  and  French  bows, 
which  are  usually  exquisitely  made,  often 
have  three  or  even  four  laminae  of  wood  but 
English  and  American  bows  seldom  have  more 
than  the  two. 

36  American  Archery 

Experts  agree  that  the  yew  bow  is  the  most 
pleasant  to  shoot,  because  of  the  smoothness 
of  its  draw.  The  relative  merits  of  the  self 
yew  and  yew-backed  yew  have  been  much 
discussed  but  the  difference,  if  any  exist,  is 
practically  negligible.  In  general  it  may  be 
said  that  backed  and  self  bows  are  equally 
good,  the  method  of  manufacture  depending 
more  on  the  material  of  which  the  bow  is 
made  than  on  anything  else. 

Although  yew  bows  are  nice  to  have  they 
are  very  expensive  and  will  not  make  a  bit 
better  scores  than  the  cheaper  lemonwood 
bows  usually  found  in  the  shops.  Bryant 
made  the  N.  A.  A.  record  for  the  American 
Rpund  with  a  lemonwood  bow  a.nd  Rendtorff 
made  his  wonderful  practice  scores  with  one. 

In  selecting  a  bow,  one  should  string  it 
and  see  that  the  cord  is  then  parallel  to  the 
handle.  If  this  be  not  the  case  it  means  that 
one  limb  is  too  strong  for  the  other.  He 
should  then  pull  the  string  back  about  a  foot 
and  let  it  go.  If  the  bow  give  a  big  kick  in 
the  hand  it  shows  that  the  two  limbs  do  not 
return  to  their  normal  positions  at  the  same 
moment.  Next  he  should  draw  the  full 
distance  and  note  whether  the  curve  of  each 

Equipment  37 

limb  be  regular  and  whether  the  bow  gives? 
or  bends,  in  the  hand.  This  latter  is  a  grave 
fault,  because  the  centre  of  the  bow,  for 
about  eight  inches,  should  not  bend  at  all  if 
the  bow  is  to  have  a  good  cast. 
'  Men's  bows  are  six  feet  long  and  weigh 
from  35  to  55  pounds.  By  " weight,"  is 
meant  the  tractive  force  necessary  to  draw  a 
28  inch  arrow  to  the  head.  Forty-two 
pounds  is  a  good  weight  for  the  average  man. 
The  beginner  almost  invariably  selects  too 
strong  a  bow,  not  realizing  that  it  is  impossible 
to  shoot  accurately  with  strained  muscles. 

Women's  bows  are  5  feet  6  inches  and 
weigh  from  20  to  35  pounds  for  a  25  inch 


The  bracer,  or  arm-guard,  is  a  piece  of 
leather  laced  to  the  flexor  surface  of  the  fore- 
arm to  protect  it  from  the  whipping  of  the 
string.  A  very  satisfactory  kind  is  made  of 
harness  leather  furnished  with  hooks  like 
those  on  men's  shoes. 


The  most  popular  protector  for  the  fingers 
is  made  by  reinforcing  the  tips  of  the  first 

38  American  Archery 

three  fingers  of  an  ordinary  suede  glove  with 
pieces  of  thin,  but  stiff,  leather. 

Leather  thimbles  are  preferred  by  some  and 
are  satisfactory  if  care  be  taken  to  get  a 
perfect  fit.  The  best  kind  has  the  end  left 
open  and  the  part  over  the  finger  nail  cut 


Before  the  war  the  best  strings  came  from 
Germany  and  Belgium.  At  present  it  is 
necessary  to  use  domestic  strings,  which  are 
manufactured  according  to  the  directions 
given  by  Maxson  elsewhere  in  this  book. 


Quivers  are  almost  indispensable  for  women 
and  are  preferred  by  many  men  because  of 
their  cleanliness.  All  the  patterns  usually 
sold  are  satisfactory. 

Many  archers  prefer  to  lay  their  arrows  on 
a  stool,  or  rack,  in  front  of  them,  or  to  stand 
them  in  a  vase.  The  heavy  glass  discs, 
perforated  with  several  holes  for  holding 
separate  flower  stems,  serve  admirably.  The 
holders  made  for  surf-casting  rods  do  very 

Equipment  39 

Target  Stands 

These  are  simply  made  of  three  pieces  of 
one  inch  by  three  inch  white  pine,  with  a 
loose  bolt,  or  pintle,  through  them  near  the 
top.  The  outer  staves  are  6  feet  long  and 
the  middle  6  feet  6  inches.  They  can  be 
spread  out  to  form  a  tripod  to  hang  the 
target  on.  The  string  is  simply  thrown  over 
the  top,  no  special  hook  being  necessary. 

The  iron  stands  sold  by  most  dealers  are 
pernicious  in  the  extreme.  They  break  the 
arrows  almost  constantly  and  should  never 
be  used. 


The  target  must  be  up  to  the  full  size  of 
4  feet  in  width  and  4  inches  in  thickness.  It 
should  be  well  tested  with  the  finger  to  see 
that  the  straw  is  thick  and  hard  at  every 
point,  as  a  target'that  is  soft,  or  loosely  wrapped, 
is  wholly  useless. 

The  face  should  be  painted  in  dull  colors 
that  will  not  glisten  in  the  sun,  and  the  red 
and  blue  rings  should  be  in  pale  shades  so 
that  the  arrows  can  be  seen  in  them  easily. 

4-0  American  Archery 

Hints  To  Beginners 
By  Samuel  G.  McMeen 

THE  best  one  hint  to  a  beginner  is:  Follow 
the  methods  laid  down  by  Dr.  Elmer  in 
the  chapters  in  this  book  on  correct  archery 
and  equipment. 

There  are  a  few  points  not  touched  upon 
by  the  authorities,  however,  on  which  one 
beginner  perhaps  may  best  be  taught  by  an- 
other. It  is  probably  for  that  reason  that  this 
chapter  was  assigned  to  the  present  writer. 

One  of  these  is  the  trouble  of  the  arrow 
falling  from  the  knuckle  of  the  left  hand  as 
the  latter  is  lifted  to  the  shooting  position 
and  the  draw  is  begun.  The  advice  usually 
given  to  the  novice  on  this  point  by  the 
experienced  archer  is:  "Keep  on  trying;  that 
trouble  will  disappear  in  time.  I  used  to  be 
bothered  by  it  years  ago,  but  not  for  very 
long."  Probably  true,  but  not  of  much  use 
to  the  beginner. 

The  writer's  belief  is  that  this  falling  of  the 
arrow  from  the  left  hand  is  due  to  the  failure 

Hints  to  Beginners  41 

of  the  first  finger  of  the  right  hand  to  pull 
hard  enough  on  the  string,  and  to  the  con- 
sequent pressure  of  that  forefinger  downward 
on  the  arrow  when  the  latter  is  in  the  hori- 
zontal position.  That  is,  the  string  tends  to 
pull  the  drawing  fingers  of  the  beginner  into 
a  full  V  with  the  nock  of  the  arrow  at  the 
apex,  while  the  fingers  of  the  trained  archer 
resist  the  string  more  fully  and  hold  their 
portion  of  it  more  nearly  vertical. 

The  remedy  is  to  force  the  forefinger  of 
the  drawing  hand  to  do  its  work.  An  expedi- 
ent of  help  while  that  finger  is  getting  trained, 
is  to  place  the  forefinger  on  the  string  a 
sensible  distance  from  the  arrow  at  the  time 
of  nocking,  and  so  to  prevent  the  pinching  of 
the  arrow  that  brings  on  the  trouble  of  its 
sliding  from  the  bow-hand  knuckle.  Make 
the  forefinger  do  its  work. 

Another  trouble  of  the  beginner  is  that  the 
side  of  the  right  forefinger  next  to  the  second 
finger  develops  soreness  and  perhaps  a  blister. 
To  avoid  this,  consciously  set  that  finger  a 
little  distance  from  the  arrow  at  the  time  of 
nocking;  use  surgical  tape  on  the  tender  part 
of  the  finger;  if  the  will  cannot  control  the 
muscles,  fasten   a   bit  of  cork   to   the  glove 

42  American  Archery 

between  those  two  fingers  so  that  they  must 
keep  a  little  apart.  Also,  make  the  forefinger 
do  its  work. 

Hold  the  breath  during  the  acts  of  aiming 
and  loosing. 

Learn  as  early  as  you  can  what  is  meant  by 
the  "point  of  aim."  It  is  not  an  abstruse 
subject.  Some  beginners  practice  it  naturally 
from  the  outset.  The  whole  subject  may  be 
said  to  be  the  art  of  hitting  the  target  better 
by  looking  at  something  else  than  at  the  gold. 

There  is  for  an  archer,  with  given  equip- 
ment, only  one  distance  at  which  on  a  calm 
day  the  point  of  the  arrow  will  be  directly 
between  his  right  eye  and  the  gold.  That 
distance  is  more  likely  to  be  eighty  yards 
than  any  other  of  the  standard  target  dis- 
tances. If  it  be  eighty  yards,  and  he  shoot 
correctly  in  all  other  particulars,  he  can  soon 
become  a  better  archer  at  that  distance  than 
he  is  at  a  greater  or  less  distance,  unless 
he  masters  the  point  of  aim.  This  he  may 
do  readily,  if  he  will  merely  hold  the  point 
of  the  arrow  between  the  right  eye  and  some 
other  object  than  the  gold  when  shooting  at 
distances  other  than  the  single  one  here 
assumed.    At  the  greater  distances,  the  point 

Hints  to  Beginners  43 

of  aim  of  most  archers  is  above  the  target. 
At  all  the  distances  of  the  American  Round, 
the  point  of  aim  is  on  the  ground  in  front  of 
the  target  for  all  archers  who  draw  to  the 
bottom  of  the  chin  or  below  it. 

Master  the  point  of  aim  early  in  your 
career.  See  it  by  direct  vision,  and  the  gold 
by  indirect.  See  that  the  arrow  lies  in  the 
line  to  both  the  point  of  aim  and  the  gold, 
unless  wind-allowance  is  required.  Keep  the 
point  of  aim  directly  between  you  and  the 
gold,  unless  wind-allowance  is  being  made. 
If  in  doubt  that  you  are  standing  in  the  right 
place  to  meet  the  last-named  caution,  hold 
your  bow  at  arm's  length  so  as  to  make  a 
plumb-line  of  the  string,  and  see  if  the  latter 
cuts  both  the  gold  and  the  point  of  aim.  You 
will  be  surprised  at  the  untruths  your  eyes 
tell  you.     Check  them  up  from  time  to  time. 

When  a  point  of  aim  is  established  on  a 
certain  day  and  for  a  certain  set  of  arrows 
and  a  certain  bow  and  the  certain  state  of 
your  nerves  and  muscles,  fix  it  firmly  in  mind 
by  reference  to  surrounding  objects  so  that  it 
may  not  be  lost  or  mistaken. 

Have  no  shame  in  using  an  artificial  object 
as  a  point  of  aim.    Eggshells,  gold  balls,  balls 

44  American  Archery 

of  paper,  dandelions, — all  legitimate.  The 
ideal  is  a  spherical  mirror,  smaller  than  a 
garden  gazing-globe  and  larger  than  the  bulb  of 
a  thermometer,  as  such  an  object  reflects  the 
image  of  the  sun  as  a  practical  point,  with  no 
real  area  and  with  great  but  not  blinding 

Make  notes  of  your  points  of  aim  at  the 
several  standard  distances.  Carry  a  card  with 
marks  enabling  you  to  take  quick  sights  with 
the  card  at  arm's  length,  instantly  establishing 
the  distance  between  the  gold  and  the  point 
of  aim.  Watch  the  first  few  arrows  to  see  if 
the  point  is  true  under  today's  conditions. 

Bows'  strengths  vary  as  the  temperature 
rises  and  falls.  Higher  points  of  aim  are 
necessary  with  the  same  bow  on  warmer 
days.     Watch  this. 

To  what  exact  point  do  you  draw  the  nock 
end  of  the  arrow?  There  have  been  cham- 
pions who  confessed  they  did  not  know,  but 
they  have  no  particular  pride  in  that.  The 
nock  end  of  the  arrow  must  be  drawn  to  a 
point  directly  below  the  right  eye,  but  that 
point  may  vary  considerably  in  height.  Find 
the  one  spot  where  the  nature  of  your  anatomy 
is  best  suited,  and  draw  always  to  that  spot. 

Hints  to  Beginners  45 

Decide  for  yourself,  after  full  and  careful 
trial,  whether  your  form  is  best  when  gripping 
the  bow-handle  rigidly,  or  by  the  lower 
fingers  of  the  left  hand  only,  the  upper  part 
of  the  hand  relaxed.  When  this  is  deter- 
mined, follow  the  successful  method  to  the 
complete  exclusion  of  all  others.  Whatever 
the  nature  of  the  bow-hand  grip,  keep  the 
left  arm  rigid  at  the  instant  of  the  loose. 

Happy  is  the  archer  who  has  trained  his 
left  arm  so  as  to  make  an  arm-guard  (bracer) 
unnecessary.  Except  for  deformed  anato- 
mies, that  training  is  possible.  If  the  string 
touch  anything  but  the  nock  of  the  arrow 
after  leaving  the  fingers,  that  shot  is  im- 
paired. Therefore:  String  your  bow  fully, — 
with  due  caution.  Let  the  bracer,  if  you  must 
use  one,  be  of  thin,  firm,  smooth  leather. 
Watch  its  upper  edge,  that  the  string  does  not 
strike  that. 

Score  your  shooting  and  PRESERVE 

Not  many  archers  can  shoot  without  a 
glove  or  tips  for  the  drawing  hand.  Make 
your  own.  A  good  way  is  to  sew  horsehide 
to  the  tips  of  the  fingers  of  a  kid  glove.  The 
kid  need  not  be  heavy.     If  the  combination 

46  American  Archery 

of  the  kid  and  horsehide  is  not  thick  enough, 
put  parchment  cut  from  the  edge  of  your 
High  School  diploma  between  the  kid  and 
the  horsehide.  For  the  third  finger,  if  it  be 
tender,  use  a  slip  of  quill  instead  of  the  parch- 
ment. Pare  its  edges.  Slip  in  the  quill  or 
parchment  after  sewing  all  but  the  lower  edge 
of  the  tip. 

Use  a  round  stick  as  a  form  inside  the 
glove  finger  in  sewing  on  the  tips.  Sew  with 
fine  silk  thread,  using  several  strands,  waxed, 
taking  close,  small  stitches.  Let  the  horse- 
hide cover  three-fourths  of  the  circumference 
of  the  glove  finger. 

National  Constitution  47 


Constitution  of  the  National  Archery 
Association  of  the  United  States 

1.  This  organization  shall  be  known  as  the 
National  Archery  Association  of  the 
United  States  of  America. 

2.  The  objects  of  the  Association  shall  be  to 
encourage  the  practice  of  archery  and 
to  arrange,  each  year,  a  Tournament  to 
determine  the  archery  championships  of 
the  United  States. 

3.  The  officers  of  the  Association  shall  be  a 
President,  three  Vice-presidents  and  a 

4.  There  shall  be  an  Executive  Committee, 
consisting  of  the  five  officers  and  four 
other  members,  of  which  the  President 
shall  be  chairman.  It  shall  have  full 
control  of  the  business  and  property  of 
the  Association,  except  when  the  Associa- 
tion is  assembled  in  its  Annual  Business 

5.  The  officers,  and  the  other  members  of 
the  Executive  Committee,  shall  assume 

48  American  Archery 

the  functions  of  office  within  thirty 
days  after  their  election  and  shall  hold 
office  until  the  qualification  of  their 

6.  All  records,  fully  completed,  and  the 
properly  audited  accounts,  together  with 
the  funds  and  all  other  property  of  the 
Association,  shall  be  turned  over  to  the 
newly  elected  officers  within  thirty  days 
after  the  close  of  the  Annual  Tourna- 

7.  A  vacant  office  may  be  filled  by  a  vote 
of  a  majority  of  the  Executive  Com- 

8.  Anyone  may  be  admitted  to  membership 
in  the  Association  if  recommended  by  a 
member  in  good  standing  and  approved 
by  the  President  and  Secretary-Treas- 

9.  An  application  for  membership  must  be 
accompanied  by  a  Membership  Fee  of 
three  dollars  and  an  Annual  Due  of  two 
dollars,  which  will  be  returned  if  the 
applicant  be  not  accepted. 

10.  A  member  may  be  expelled  by  a  vote  of 
a  majority  of  those  present  at  an  Annual 
Business   Meeting. 

National  Constitution  49 

1 1 .  Anyone  may  be  elected  to  Life  Member- 
ship, without  dues,  by  a  special  vote  at 
an  Annual  Business  Meeting. 

12.  The  Annual  Due  for  each  member  shall 
be  two  dollars. 

13.  A  member  shall  be  suspended  at  the  end 
of  a  fiscal  year  for  non-payment  of  the 
dues  of  that  year.  He  may  be  reinstated 
at  any  time  by  paying  either  his  lapsed 
dues  or  the  initiation  fee,  as  he  may 
prefer,  together  with  the  dues  of  the 
year  in  which  his  reinstatement  occurs. 

14.  The  fiscal  year  shall  end  at  midnight  of 
the  last  day  of  the  Annual  Tournament. 

15.  On  being  originally  admitted  to  member- 
ship one  shall  pay  a  Membership  Fee 
of  three  dollars. 

16.  The  Association  shall  hold  an  Annual 
Tournament,  between  the  15th  of  July 
and  the  15th  of  September,  each  Year. 
This  Tournament  shall  be  to  determine 
the  Archery  championships  of  the  United 
States  and  for  such  other  forms  of  prac- 
tice and  competition  in  archery  as  are 
directed  by  the  Executive  Committee. 

17.  Before  a  member  may  participate  in  an 
Annual    Tournament    he    must    pay    a 

50  American  Archery 

target  fee  of  three  dollars  and  must  be 
free  of  all  indebtedness  to  the  Associa- 
tion, including  the  dues  for  the  current 

18.  The  Association  shall  hold  an  Annual 
Business  Meeting  during  the  Annual 
Tournament.  At  this  meeting  the  officers 
and  other  members  of  the  Executive 
Committee  for  the  ensuing  year  shall  be 
elected,  the  place  for  the  next  Annual 
Tournament  decided  upon  and  any  other 
business  transacted. 

19.  The  Annual  Tournament  shall  be  under 
the  supervision  of  the  Executive  Com- 
mittee, which  shall  be  represented  by  a 
Field-Captain.  When  possible  the  Presi- 
dent shall  be  Field-Captain,  but,  if  he 
cannot  serve,  the  Executive  Committee 
shall  appoint  one  of  the  archers  present. 

20.  The  Field-Captain  may  appoint,  to  assist 
him,  as  many  other  general  field  officers 
as  he  may  deem  necessary. 

21.  At  each  target  one  archer  shall  be  ap- 
pointed by  the  Field-Captain  to  be 
Target  Captain  and  another  to  be  Scorer. 

22.  The  following  events  for  men  must  be 
shot  at  each  Annual  Tournament: 

National  Constitution  51 

The  Double  York  Round,  consisting  of 
144  arrows  at  100  yards 

96       "        "     80     " 

48       "        "     60     ." 
The  Double  American  Round,  consisting 

60  arrows  at  60  yards 

60       "       "  50     " 

60       "        "  40     " 
The  Team  Round  for  Men,  consisting  of 

96  arrows  at  60  yards. 
The  Flight  Shoot  for  Men,  consisting  of 
3  shots,  not  necessarily  with  different 
23.    The  following  events  for  women  must  be 
shot  at  each  Annual  Tournament: 
The  Double  National  Round,  consisting 

96  arrows  at  60  yards 

48       "        "  50      " 
The  Double  Columbia  Round,  consisting 

48  arrows  at  50  yards 

48       U        "  40      " 

48       "        "  30      " 
The  Team  Round  for  Women,  consisting  of 

96  arrows  at  50  yards. 

52  American  Archery 

The  Flight  Shoot  for  Women,  consisting 

3  shots,  not  necessarily  with  different 


24.  Other  events  may  be  added  at  the  dis- 
cretion of  the  Executive  Committee. 

25.  Any  kind  of  bow,  except  a  cross-bow,  and 
any  kind  of  arrow,  may  be  used  in  any 

25.  The  face  of  the  target  shall  consist  of  a 
central  disk,  g%0  inches  in  diameter, 
and  four  concentric  rings,  each  4%, 
inches  in  width,  painted,  respectively, 
from  within  out,  gold,  red,  blue,  black 
and  white. 

27.  The  value  of  the  colors  shall  be:  Gold-9, 
Red-7,  Blue-5,  Black-3,  White-i. 

28.  If  an  arrow  cut  two  colors  it  shall  count 
as  having  hit  the  inner  one. 

29.  The  targets  shall  be  placed  on  easels,  the 
center  of  the  gold  being  four  feet  from 
the  ground. 

30.  An  arrow  must  remain  in  the  target 
until  recorded  by  the  scorer. 

31.  An  arrow  rebounding  from,  or  passing 
through,  the  scoring  face  of  the  target 
shall  count  as  one  hit  and  five  in  value. 

National  Constitution  53 

32.  Each  archer  shall  shoot,  at  one  time,  six 
arrows,  called  an  "end."  Unless  ex- 
cused by  his  target  captain  he  shall 
shoot  three,  yield  place  to  his  target 
mates  and  then,  in  his  turn,  shoot  the 
other  three. 

33.  The  arrows  of  each  archer  must  bear  a 
distinctive  mark. 

34.  Every  arrow  leaving  the  bow  shall  be 
deemed  as  having  been  shot  if  the  archer, 
while  standing  within  the  line  from  which 
he  has  been  shooting,  cannot  reach  it 
with  his  bow.  This  rule  is  void  if  either 
the  bow,  string  or  arrow  break  during 
the  shot. 

35.  A  hit,  or  hits,  made  by  an  archer  on  a 
target  not  assigned  to  him  shall  not  be 

36.  All  disputes  shall  be  referred  to  the 
captain  of  the  target  at  which  they  arise. 
From  him  an  appeal  may  be  taken  to  the 
Field-Captain,whosedecision  shall  befinal. 

37.  The  Champion  Archer  of  the  United 
States  shall  be  the  archer  who,  in  an 
Annual  Tournament,  has  the  highest 
result  obtained  by  adding  together  the 
scores  and  hits  of  his  Double  York  and 

54  American  Archery 

Double  American  Rounds.  In  case  of 
a  tie  the  archer  with  the  greatest  score 
wins.  In  case  of  a  second  tie  the  archer 
with  the  greatest  score  in  the  York 
Round  wins. 

38.  Any  woman,  wishing  to  compete  for  the 
Championship  of  the  United  States  or 
for  the  other  titles  competed  for  by  the 
men,  may  shoot  as  a  man,  being  subject 
to  all  the  rules  and  conditions  imposed 
on  the  men. 

39.  No  man  may  compete  in  the  events  for 

40.  The  Champion  Woman  Archer  of  the 
United  States  shall  be  the  woman  who, 
in  an  Annual  Tournament,  has  the 
highest  result  obtained  by  adding  to- 
gether the  scores  and  hits  of  her  Double 
National  and  Double  Columbia  Rounds. 
In  case  of  a  tie  the  woman  with  the 
greatest  score  wins.  In  case  of  a  second 
tie  the  woman  with  the  greatest  score  in 
the  Double  National  Round  wins. 

41.  The  word  "Champion"  shall  be  applied 
to  none  but  these  two. 

42.  The  Winner  of  the  Double  York  Round 
shall  be  the  archer  who  has  the  highest 

National  Constitution  55 

result  obtained  by  adding  together  hits 
and  score.  In  case  of  a  tie  the  archer 
with  the  highest  score  wins.  In  case  of  a 
second  tie  the  archer  with  the  highest 
score  at  100  yards  wins. 

43.  The  Winner  of  the  Double  American 
Round  shall  be  the  archer  who  has  the 
highest  score.  In  case  of  a  tie  the  archer 
with  the  most  hits  wins.  In  case  of  a 
second  tie  the  archer  with  the  highest 
score  at  60  yards  wins. 

44.  No  archer  shall  be  allowed  to  shoot  the 
first  and  second  rounds  of  the  Double 
American  and  Double  York  upon  the 
same  target. 

45.  The  Winning  Team  of  Men  shall  be  the 
team  of  four  archers,  who  must  have  been 
members  of  the  same  archery  club  for  at 
least  one  month,  which  has  the  greatest 
aggregate  score  in  the  Team  Contest. 
Three  men  may  shoot  as  a  team  but  their 
scores  must  count  against  those  made 
by  the  four-men  teams  if  any  such  com- 
pete. In  case  of  a  tie  the  team  with  the 
most  hits  wins.  In  case  of  a  second  tie 
the  honors  are  divided. 

56  American  Archery 

46.  The  Winner  of  the  Flight  Shoot  for  Men 
shall  be  the  man,  or  woman,  who  shoots 
an  arrow  the  greatest  distance.  In  case 
of  a  tie  another  arrow  shall  be  shot. 

47.  The  Winner  of  the  Double  National 
Round  shall  be  the  woman  who  has  the 
highest  result  obtained  by  adding  to- 
gether hits  and  score.  In  case  of  a  tie 
the  woman  with  the  highest  score  wins. 
In  case  of  a  second  tie  the  woman  with 
the  highest  score  at  60  yards  wins. 

48.  The  Winner  of  the  Double  Columbia 
Round  shall  be  the  woman  who  has  the 
highest  score.  In  case  of  a  tie  the  woman 
with  the  most  hits  wins.  In  case  of  a 
second  tie  the  woman  with  the  highest 
score  at  50  yards  wins. 

49.  The  Winning  Team  of  Women  shall  be 
the  team  of  four  women,  who  must 
have  been  members  of  the  same  archery 
club  for  at  least  one  month,  which  has 
the  greatest  aggregate  score  in  the  Team 
Contest.  Three  women  may  shoot  as  a 
team  but  their  scores  must  count  against 
those  made  by  the  four-women  teams  if 
any  such  compete.     In  case  of  a  tie  the 

National  Constitution  57 

team  with  the  most  hits  wins.     In  case 
of  a  second  tie  the  honors  are  divided. 

50.  The  Winner  of  the  Flight  Shoot  for 
Women  shall  be  the  woman  who  shoots 
an  arrow  the  greatest  distance.  In  case 
of  a  tie  another  arrow  shall  be  shot. 

51.  All  prizes  that  are  competed  for  at  an 
Annual  Tournament  shall  be  awarded 
at  an  Annual  Business  Meeting  or  at  an 
adjournment  thereof.  Those  prizes  that 
are  the  permanent  property  of  the  Asso- 
ciation may  be  kept  by  their  winners 
until  15  days  before  the  next  Annual 
Tournament,  at  which  time  they  must 
be  returned  to  the  Secretary-Treasurer. 

52.  The  Prizes  for  Men  which  are  the  per- 
manent property  of  the  Association  shall 
be  awarded  as  follows: 

The  York  Medal  to  the  Winner  of    the 

Double  York  Round. 

The  American  Medal  to  the  Winner  of 

the  Double  American  Round. 

The    100    Yard    Range    Medal    for    the 

greatest  score  at  100  yards,  barring  the 

Champion  and  the  Winners  of  the  Double 

York  and  Double  American  Rounds. 

The  80  Yard  Range  Medal  for  the  great- 

58  American  Archery 

est  score  at  80  yards,  barring  the  Cham- 
pion, the  Winners  of  the  Double  York 
and  Double  American  Rounds  and  the 
Winner  of  the  100  Yard  Range  Medal. 
The  60  Yard  Range  Medal  for  the  great- 
est gross  score  at  60  yards  in  the  Double 
York,  the  Double  American  and  the 
Team  Rounds,  barring  the  Champion, 
the  Winners  of  the  Double  York  and 
Double  American  Rounds  and  the  Win- 
ners of  the  medals  for  the  longer  ranges. 
The  50  Yard  Range  Medal  for  the  great- 
est score  at  50  yards,  barring  the  Cham- 
pion, the  Winners  of  the  Double  York 
and  Double  American  Rounds  and  the 
Winners  of  the  medals  for  the  longer 

The  40  Yard  Range  Medal  for  the  great- 
est score  at  40  yards,  barring  the  Cham- 
pion, the  winners  of  the  Double  York  and 
Double  American  Rounds  and  the  Win- 
ners of  the  medals  for  the  longer  ranges. 
The  Maurice  Thompson  Medal  for  the 
greatest  score  at  100  yards. 
The  Spalding  Medal  for  Men  for  the 
most  Golds  in  the  Double  York  Round. 
The    Potomac    Medal    for    the    greatest 

National  Constitution  59 

score  in  the  Team  Round,  whether  the 

archer    be     a     member    of    a    team    or 


The  Pearsall  Bugle  to  the  Winning  Team 

of  Men. 

The  DufT  Arrow  to  the  man,  in  his  first 

National  Tournament,    who   makes   the 

greatest  score  in  the  Double  American 


The  Ovington  Beaker  to  the  Winner  of 

the  Flight  Shoot. 

The  Jiles  Cup  to  the  man  whose  total 

obtained    by    adding    together    the    hits 

and    scores    of    his    Double    York    and 

Double    American    Rounds    shall    show 

the  greatest  improvement  over  his  similar 

total  at  the  last  National  Tournament 

in  which  he  took  part.     No  scores  more 

than  2  years  old  shall  be  counted. 

The  Clan  McLeod  Cup  to  the  Winner 

of  any  Novelty  Shoot  that  the  Executive 

Committee  may  place  on  the  program. 

The  Elmer  Wooden  Spoon  to  the  man 

who,    having    shot    through    the    whole 

of  the  Double  York  and  Double  American 

Rounds,  shall  have  the  lowest  score  in 


60  American  Archery 

53.  The  Prizes  for  Women  which  are  the 
permanent  property  of  the  Association 
shall  be  awarded  as  follows : 
The  National  Medal  to  the  Winner  of 
the  Double  National  Round. 
The  Columbia  Medal  to  the  Winner  of 
the  Double  Columbia  Round. 
The  60  Yard  Range  Medal  for  the  great- 
est score  at  60  yards,  barring  the  Cham- 
pion and  the  Winners  of  the  Double 
National  and  Double  Columbia  Rounds. 
The  50  Yard  Range  Medal  for  the  great- 
est score  at  50  yards  in  the  Double 
National,  Double  Columbia  and  Team 
Rounds,  barring  the  Champion,  the  Win- 
ners of  the  Double  National  and  Double 
Columbia  Rounds  and  the  Winner  of 
the  60  yard  Range  Medal. 
The  40  Yard  Range  Medal  for  the  great- 
est score  at  40  yards,  barring  the  Cham- 
pion, the  Winners  of  the  Double  Na- 
tional and  Double  Columbia  Rounds  and 
the  Winners  of  the  medals  for  the  longer 

The  30  Yard  Range  Medal  for  the  great- 
est score  at  30  yards,  barring  the  Cham- 
pion,  the  Winners   of  the   Double   Na- 

National  Constitution  61 

tional  and  Double  Columbia  Rounds  and 

the  Winners  of  the  medals  for  the  longer 


The  Spalding  Medal  for  Women  for  the 

most    Golds    in    the    Double    National 


The  Peacock  Cup  to  the  Winning  Team 

of  Women. 

The  Maid  Marian  Arrow  to  the  Archer, 

in  her  first  National  Tournament,  who 

makes  the  greatest  score  in  the  Double 

Columbia  Round. 

The  Sidway  Medal  to  the  Winner  of  the 

Flight  Shoot. 

The  Jessop  Trophy  to  the  Winner  of  the 

Wand  Shoot. 

The  C.  C.  Beach  Junior  Brooch  to  the 

girl  under    18   who   makes   the  greatest 

score  in   the  Double   Columbia   Round. 

If  no  archer  fulfills  these  requirements  it 

shall  be  awarded  to  the  youngest  woman 

present,  no  matter  what  her  score  may  be. 

54.  The  Dallin  Medal  in  Gold  shall  be  given 
outright  to  the  two  Champions  but  to 
no  one  else. 

55.  The  Dallin  Medal  in  Silver  or  Bronze 
may  be  given  outright  to  the  Winners 

62  American  Archery 

of  such  conditions  or  events  as  may  have 
been  announced  by  the  Executive  Com- 
mittee before  the  beginning  of  the  Tourna- 
56.  *  Special  Prizes  may  be  awarded  at  the 
discretion  of  the  Executive  Committee. 

56.  All  previous  constitutions  are  hereby 

57.  This  constitution  may  be  altered  or 
amended  only  at  an  Annual  Business 
Meeting  of  the  Association,  and  by  a 
two-thirds  majority  of  those  present. 

*Note. — The  only  special  prize  now  in  possession  of  the  Associa- 
tion (June,  1917)  is  the  Weston  Trophy,  which  is  not  numbered 
among  the  permanent  prizes  because  it  becomes  the  property  of  the 
archer  who  wins  it  three  times  in  succession.  It  is  awarded  as  follows: 
The  Weston  Trophy  shall  be  awarded  to  the  archer,  of  either  sex, 
who  makes  the  most  Golds  at  any  one  end  of  six  arrows  during  the 
Tournament.  All  claims  must  be  accompanied  by  a  record  of  string 
measurement  from  the  pin-center  to  the  inner  edge  of  each  arrow. 


How  to  Form  an  Archery  Club  63 


How  to  Form  an  Archery  Club 
By  Dr.  Robert  P.  ElmBr 

HOSE  veteran  archers  who  are  supposed 
to  be  authorities  on  toxophilitic  subjects 
are  continually  asked  the  question,  "How 
can  one  form  an  archery  club?"  Taking 
their  experience  as  a  guide,  the  answer  to 
this  simple  query  may  be  outlined  as  fol- 

The  person  who  wishes  to  start  the  club  is 
usually  one  who,  for  some  reason  or  other, 
has  become  an  enthusiastic  archer.  In  course 
of  time  he  tires  of  shooting  alone  and  plans 
to  create  an  organization,  both  for  the  pleasure 
of  companionship  and  to  promote  his  beloved 

How  shall  he  secure  active  members  for  it? 
This  is  the  one  great  problem.  Archery  is  a 
sport  in  which  it  is  so  difficult  to  become 
proficient  that,  of  those  who  essay  a  beginning 
only  a  small  proportion  persist  until  they 
acquire  enough  skill  to  make  shooting  a  real 

64  American  Archery 

It  is  well,  therefore,  for  him  to  interest  as 
many  beginners  as  he  can  and,  to  do  this,  no 
way  is  so  effective  as  to  fit  them  out  and  let 
them  shoot  with  equipment  loaned  for  the 
occasion.  Some  are  sure  to  be  fascinated 
sufficiently  to  wish  to  continue  and,  with  a 
nucleus  of  three  or  four  such  neophytes,  a 
club  may  safely  be  started. 

After  thus  securing  the  archers  a  permanent 
range  must  be  found.  It  may  be  on  the 
grounds  of  a  country  club,  on  the  lawn  of  a 
member  or  in  any  available  field.  Of  course 
the  more  agreeable  the  surroundings  the  easier 
it  is  to  lengthen  the  roll  of  members.  Prefer- 
ably the  range  should  be  at  least  120  yards 
long,  so  that  the  York  Round  may  be  shot, 
but,  in  many  cases,  it  is  not  possible  to  get 
more  than  the  80  yards  required  for  the 
American  and  National  Rounds.  Nearby 
there  should  be  a  place  where  targets  can  be 

Not  more  than  two  officers  are  necessary,  a 
President,  who  acts  ex  officio  as  Field  Captain, 
and  a  Secretary-Treasurer. 

The  actual  shooting  should  follow  the  rules 
laid  down  in  the  Constitution  of  the  National 
Archery   Association,    except    that    in    small 

How  to  Form  an  Archery  Club  65 

matches  several  archers  usually  toe  the  line 
simultaneously  and  use  all  six  arrows  at 
once,  instead  of  three,  in  order  to  save 

Dues  should  be  sufficient  to  provide  for 
the  purchase  of  new  targets  each  year,  and  to 
pay  for  keeping  up  the  range.  Small  entrance 
fees  for  stated  matches  and  tournaments  will 
furnish  money  for  prizes. 

To  maintain  interest  there  is  nothing  better 
than  the  holding  of  frequent  matches  between 
the  individuals  of  the  club  and,  when  possible, 
with  teams  from  other  clubs.  The  contests 
for  individuals  may  be  scratch  events  when 
the  archers  are  fairly  equal  in  skill  but,  as  a 
general  rule,  more  fun  can  be  had  by  handi- 
capping each  one  according  to  his  ability. 
Various  methods  of  arranging  handicaps  are 
in  use.  Some  clubs  take  as  a  basis  the  last 
score,  some  strike  an  average  of  three  or 
more  recent  performances  and  some  handicap 
on  the  best  mark  the  archer  has  ever  made. 
In  the  last  case  most  of  the  cards  handed  in 
will  be  minus,  but  the  incentive  to  do  one's 
best  is  constant  and  there  is  no  chance  for  an 
individual  to  win  merely  because  he  has  had 
a  recent  slump. 

66  American  Archery 

Of  course,  as  in  any  other  undertaking, 
many  problems  of  a  local  nature  will  arise 
which  must  be  decided  by  one's  own  judg- 
ment but,  if  the  founder  of  the  club  will  be 
guided  by  these  hints  and,  more  particularly, 
by  the  Constitution  of  the  National  Archery 
Association  he  will  probably  be  able  to  start 
a  successful  and  permanent  organization. 

Highest  American  Records 



Highest  Official  American  Records 

Made  in  Annual  Tournaments  of  the  National 
Archery  Association 

By  Dr.  Edward  B.  Weston 

Single  York  Round 




H.  B.  Richardson 
Double  York  Round 

116-  566 



H.  B.  Richardson 
Single  American  Round 




G.  P.  Bryant 
Double  American  Round 

90-  618 



G.  P.  Bryant 
Men's  Team  Round 





G.  P.  Bryant 
Team  of  4  Men 

92-  SS6 



Chicago  Archery  Association, 
A.  E.  Spink                        87-  461 
H.  S.  Taylor                       89-  417 
W.  H.  Thompson               89-  413 
C.  C.  Beach                        85-  389 




Flight  Shoot,  Men 

L.  W.  Maxson 
Single  National  Round 

290  yards 

Natural  Bridge,  Va. 


Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 
Double  National  Round 

68-  398 



Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 

132-  756 




American  Archery 

Single  Columbia  Round 

Miss  C.  M.  Wesson 



Double  Columbia  Round 

Miss  Cynthia  M.  Wesson 



Women's  Team  Round 


Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 



Team  of  4  Women 

Wayne  Archers 

Miss  Wesson 



Mrs.  Trout 



Mrs.  Dunlap 



Mrs.  Elmer 



Flight  Shoot,  Women 
Mrs.  G.  P.  Bryant 





295-1405     Haverford  1914 

25 1  yards  T%  foot  Boston       1913 


Best  English  Scores 



The  Best  English  Scores 

By  Dr.  Edward  B.  Weston 

SINCE  the  beginning  of  the  five  public 
meetings  in  England,  in  1853,  there  have 
been  made  only  17  double  York  round  scores 
of  over  1000,  two  of  them  being  over  1100 
and  one  over  1200.  These  three  high  scores 
were  made  by  Ford,  the  only  archer  who  has 
made  in  public  a  higher  score  than  our  Henry 
B.  Richardson  who,  in  1910,  scored  231-im. 
The  complete  list  follows: 

Grand  National 


1854    H.A.Ford     234-1074  1856    H.A.Ford     244-1162 

1857  H.A.Ford     245-1 251  (World's  1857     H.A.Ford     230-1026 

1858  H.A.Ford     214-1076  Record)  1858    H.A.Ford     230-1128 

1867    H.  A.  Ford     215-1037 

Great  Western 
1870     C.  H.  Fisher     225-1033 
1872     C.  H.  Fisher     218-1060 
1886     C.  E.  Nesham  202-1022 

Crystal  Palace 

1882    H.  H.  Palairet  221-1025 

1893     F.  A.  Govett  214-1004 

1901     C.  E.  Nesham  217-1027 

1861     H.  A.  Ford     212-1014 

1868  H.  A.  Ford     219-1087 

1869  H.  A.  Ford     220-1030 

Southern  Counties 
1905     J.  B.  Keysworth     216-1016 

70  American  Archery 

From  1883  to  the  present  time  the  cham- 
pionship score  at  the  Grand  National  has 
been  as  high  as  900  only  five  times,  Mr.  C.  E. 
Nesham  making  four  of  the  scores,  one  of 
which,  for  1886,  is  given  above,  and  Mr. 
Fisher  making  the  other. 

As  is  indicated  by  the  above  records,  Mr. 
Ford  was  by  far  the  best  archer  produced  by 
England  within  historically  authentic  times. 
His  private  scores  are  far  ahead  of  those  made 
in  the  great  public  meetings  and,  up  to  the 
present  time,  have  not  been  approached 
dangerously  near  by  anyone. 

His  best  single  York  round  was  shot  with 
a  yew-backed  yew  and  5s.,  29  inch  arrows. 

66-344    47-301    24-164    137-809 

Second  best; 

69-371  48-274  24-154  141-799 

Although  he  does  not  specifically  mention 
the  weight  of  the  bows  used  in  these  rounds 
it  is  elsewhere  stated  by  him  that  he  usually 
shot  a  56  pound  bow. 

His  best  double  York  round,  shot  privately, 
(Butt's  "Ford,"  p.  281),  was: 

61-295    48-306    24-186    133-  787 

63-299     46-278     24-168     133-  745 


Best  English  Scores  71 

According  to  Butt,  the  best  marks  he  ever 
made  at  the  three  ranges  are  included  in  the 
above  scores,  namely: 

Gold     Red     Blue     Black    White 

At  100  yards 







"     80     " 







"     60     " 






After  reading  these  wonderful  scores  it 
may  possibly  be  a  comfort  to  young  archers 
to  learn  that  Mr.  Ford's  first  appearance  at 
the  Grand  National  he  made  a  double  York 
round  of  101-341. 

Other  English  archers  who  have  made  over 
600  at  the  single  York  round  are: 

Capt.  A.  P.  Moore 


Private  practice. 

John  Bramhall 


25th  November,  185 1. 

G.  E.  S.  Fryer 


Practice  at  Royal  Toxophilite 

C.  E.  Nesham 


Private  practice  at  Bournemouth. 
14  May,  1883. 

E.  A.  Holmes 


Private  practice  at  Harrow.     1867. 

C.  J.  Perry-Keene 


Private  practice.     24  July,  1886. 

In  shooting  the  double  national  round 
many  ladies  have  passed  the  700  mark;  but 
few  have  made  800,  as  shown  on  the  follow- 
ing page: 


American  Archery 

Grand  National 


1892  Miss  Legh 


1885  Mrs.  Piers  F.  Legh 


1894  Mrs.  C.  Bowley 


1888  Miss  Legh 


1898  Miss  Legh 


1895  Miss  Legh  (World's 


1902  Miss  Legh 


1900  Miss  B.  M.  Legh 


1903  Miss  Legh 


1903  Miss  Legh 


1904  Miss  Legh 


1906  Miss  Legh 


1905  Miss  Legh 


1907  Miss  Q.  Newall 


1907  Miss  Legh 


1908  Miss  Legh 


191 1  Miss  Q.  Newall 


(The  Leghs  were  three 


Grand  Western 

Crystal  Palace 

1 88 1  Miss  Legh 


1885  Miss  Legh 


1910  Miss  Wadsworth 

i 139-807 

1890  Miss  Legh 


1893  Mrs.  C.  Bowley 


It  would  seem  that,  in  comparing  the  skill 
of  the  past  and  present  great  archers,  Miss 
Legh  should  be  ranked  the  equal  of  Mr.  Ford. 

National  Association  Records 



Records  of  the  National  Archery 
Association  of  the  United  States 

By  Dr.  Edward  B.  Weston 


100  yards 

80  yards 

60  yards 



W.  H.  Thompson 






L.  L.  Peddinghaus 

1  55-221 





F.  H.  Walworth 






H.  S.  Taylor 




168-678  (a) 


R.  Williams,  Jr. 






W.  H.  Thompson 






R.  Williams,  Jr. 






W.  A.  Clark 






W.  A.  Clark 






W.  H.  Thompson 




175-733  (b) 


L.  W.  Maxson 






L.  W.  Maxson 






L.  W.  Maxson 






L.  W.  Maxson 






L.  W.  Maxson 






L.  W.  Maxson 






W.  R.  Robinson 






D.  F.  McGowan 






W.  A.  Clark      . 






L.  W.  Maxson 






M.  C.  Howell 






A.  R.  Clark 






W.  H.  Thompson 





(a)  Mr.  Taylor  won  by  points,  Mr.  D.  A.  Nash  making  167  hits,  713  score. 

(b)  Mr.  Thompson  won  by  points,  Mr.  Maxson  making  171  hits,  739  score. 


American  Archery 

1902  R. 

1903  W. 

1904  G. 

1905  G. 

1906  H. 

1907  H. 

1908  W. 

1909  G. 

1910  H. 

1911  H. 

1912  G. 

1913  Dr 

1914  Dr 

1915  H. 

1916  Dr 

Williams,  Jr. 
P.  Bryant 
P.  Bryant 
B.  Richardson 
B.  Richardson 
H.  Thompson 
P.  Bryant 

100  yards 

B.  Richardson    96-400 
S.  Taylor  78-338 

P.  Bryant         105-435 
.  J.  W.  Doughty  66-282 
R.  P.  Elmer      58-238 
L.  Walker  49-183 

.  R.  P.  Elmer      90-390 

80  yards 


60  yards 







178-802  (c) 




(c)     Dr.  Doughty  won  by  points,  Mr.  G.  P.  Bryant  making  176  hits,  832  sco  re 


60  yards 

50  yards 

40  yards 



Col.  R.  Williams, 

Jr.  56-290 





Col.  R.  Williams, 

Jr.  57-301 





Col.  R.  Williams, 

Jr.  57-295 





W.  A.  Clark 






W.  A.  Clark 




174-  992 


L.  W.  Maxson 




175-  961 


J.  T.  Shawan 




171-  951 


L.  W.  Maxson 




170-  996 


L.  W.  Maxson 






L.  W.  Maxson 




1 77-1041 


L.  W.  Maxson 




175-  983 


J.  Benckenstein 




169-  871 


L.  W.  Maxson 






L.  W.  Maxson 




170-  942 


W.  A.  Clark 




159-  79i 


J.  L.  Taylor 




165-  885 


W.  A.  Clark 


57-265  ] 


159-  811 

Photo,  by  Paul  Thompson 

Miss  Cynthia  M.  Wesson 

Champion  Woman  Archer  of  the  United  States,  1915,  1916,  1917 

(No  tournament  held  in  1917) 

National  Association  Records 


60  yards 

50  yards 

40  yards 


1900    A.  R.  Clark 





1901     C.  S.  Woodruff 




159-  853 

1902     Col.  R.  Williams 

,  Jr.  50-286 



164-  930 

1903     Col.  R.  Williams 

•  Jr.  53-251 



170-  878 

1904    G.  P.  Bryant 





1905     C.  C.  Beach 





1906    H.B.Richardson       59-331 




1907    Col.  R.  Williams 

,  Jr.  56-296 




1908     Col.  R.  Williams 

,  Jr.  52-282 




1909     G.  P.  Bryant 





1910    H.  B.  Richardson        59-291 




191 1     Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer 





1912    G.  P.  Bryant 





19 1 3     Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer 





1914    Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer 





1915     Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer 





1916    Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer 





Rank  of  the  Winners  or  the  Double  York  Round 

Times  . 

Av. Winning  Highest 

Av.  All 







1.    Richardson       3 

207-  955 


164-  704 


2.   G.  P.  Bryant    4 

205-  901 


188-  828 


3.    Elmer               2 

186-  892 


171-  761 


4.    Williams           3 

188-  838 

215-  995 

166-  716 


5.    Doughty           1 

178-  802 

178-  802 

178-  802 


6.    Walworth         1 

173-  763 

173-  763 

159-  677 


7.    A.  R  .Clark      1 

180-  758 

180-  758 

164-  702 


8.    H.  S.  Taylor    2 

179-  757 

181-  835 

163-  691 


9.   Thompson        5 

178-  754 

211-  973 

162-  680 


10.    Robinson          1 

169-  749 

169-  749 

155-  629 


11.    Peddinghaus     1 

152-  708 

152-  708 

123-  537 


12.    Maxson            7 

166-  702 

180-  766 

136-  564 


13.    Walker              1 

152-  666 

152-  666 

14.    W.A.Clark     3 

155-  643 

158-  718 

125-  507 


15.   Howell              1 

138-  590 

138-  590 

118-  492 


16.   McGowan        1 

118-  462 

146-  544 

106-  410 



American  Archery 

Rank  of  the  Winners  of  the  Double  American  Round 







Av. Winning  Highest 
Scores  Score 

G.  P.  Bryant 



A.  R.  Clark 





W.  A.  Clark 

J.  L.  Taylor 




174-  992 

171-  951 

168-  898 
165-  885 

169-  871 
159-  853 


171-  951 
165-  885 
169-  871 
171-  933 

Av.  All 


169-  991 

178-  846 
164-  622 
169-  919 
163-  886 

161-  855 

162-  862 

159-  827 
151-  749 
139-  657 

160-  820 











1 879-1 880 




The  Winner  of  the  Double  York  Round. 
Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer      Score     2012 
Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer      Score     2468 

The  Winner  of  the  Double  Columbia  Round. 
The  Winner  of  the  Double  National  Round. 
Miss  C.  M.  Wesson      Score     1980 
Miss  C.  M.  Wesson      Score     1692 




(4  a  side) 
American  Round 

Wabash  Merry  Bowmen,  Crawfordsville,  Ind. 

Marietta  Archers,  Marietta,  Ohio 

College  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio 

Team  Round 

College  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio 
Highland  Archery  Club,  Wyoming,  Ohio 
Battle  Creek  Archery  Club,  Battle  Creek,  Mich. 



Photo,  by  Paul  Thompson 

Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 

Champion  Archer  of  the  United  States,  1914,  1915,  1916,  1917 

(No  tournament  held  in  1917) 

National  Association  Records 


Team  Round — Continued. 

1885  Highland  Archery  Club,  Wyoming,  Ohio  327-1509 

1886  Highland  Archery  Club,  Wyoming,  Ohio  285-1283 

1887  Brooklyn  Archery  Club,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.  301-1349 

1888  Highland  Archery  Club,  Wyoming,  Ohio  316-1636 

1889  Walnut  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio  291-1367 

1890  Walnut  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio  314-1486 

1 891  Walnut  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio  283-1307 

1892  Walnut  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio  311-1367 

1893  Walnut  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio  297-1383 

1894  Potomac  Archers,  Washington,  D.  C.      No  other 

team  present. 

1895  Walnut  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio  286-1294 

1896  Potomac  Archers,  Washington,  D.  C.  252-1086 

1897  Potomac  Archers,  Washington,  D.  C.  297-1335 

1898  Highland  Archery  Club,  Wyoming,  Ohio  284-1314 

1899  Highland  Archery  Club,  Wyoming,  Ohio  275-1 181 

1900  Highland  Archery  Club,  Wyoming,  Ohio  306-1334 

1901  Potomac  Archers,  Washington,  D.  C.  296-1314 

1902  Potomac  Archers,  Washington,  D.  C.  287-1343 

1903  Potomac  Archers,  Washington,  D.  C.  284-1242 

1904  Potomac  Archers,  Washington,  D.  C.  300-1334 

1905  Chicago  Archery  Club  309-1367 

1906  Boston  Archers  327-1591 

1907  Chicago  Archery  Club  350-1680 

1908  Chicago  Archery  Club  318-1532 

1909  Boston  Archers  300-1436 

1910  Chicago  Archery  Club  330-1506 

1911  Chicago  Archery  Club  318-1528 

191 2  Boston  Archers  324-1618 

1913  Boston  Archers  328-1538 

1914  Wayne  Archers,  Wayne,  Pa.  320-1578 

1915  Stopped  by  rain  at  the  end  of  the  first  half,  with  the 

Wayne  Archers  in  the  lead 


19 16    Keystone  Archers 

78  American  Archery 


1882  J.  Wilkinson,  Chicago 

1883  No  contest 

1884  No  contest 

1885  W.  P.  Webb,  Eaton,  Ohio 

1886  J.  J.  Watrous,  Cincinnati,  Ohio 

1887  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1888  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1889  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1890  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1891  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1892  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1893  C.  J-  Strong,  Cincinnati,  Ohio 

1894  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1895  G.  Benckenstein,  Wyoming,  Ohio 

1896  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1897  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1898  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1899  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1900  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1901  R.  E.  Taylor,  Cincinnati,  Ohio 

1902  A.  E.  Whitman,  Melrose,  Mass. 

1903  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1904  L.  W.  Maxson,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1905  W.  Bryant,  Boston 

1906  H.  S.  Taylor,  Chicago 

1907  H.  B.  Richardson,  Boston 

1908  J.  M.  Challis,  Atchison,  Kan. 

1909  Z.  E.  Jackson,  Atchison,  Kan. 

1910  H.  W.  Bishop,  Chicago 

191 1  Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer,  Wayne,  Pa. 

1912  G.  P.  Bryant,  Boston 

1913  Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer,  Wayne,  Pa. 

1914  J.  S.  Jiles,  Pittsburgh 

1915  No  contest,  on  account  of  rain 

1916  G.  P.  Bryant,  Boston  289        28 

Yards  Inches 







































National  Association  Records 



60  yards 

50  yards 



Mrs.  A.  H.  Gibbs 





Mrs.  A.  H.  Gibbs 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 


'     47-277 



Mrs.  H.  Hall 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  A.  M.  Phillips 



1 3 1-63 1 


Mrs.  A.  M.  Phillips 





Mrs.  A.  M.  Phillips 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  A.  Kern 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  J.  S.  Barker 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  C.  S.  Woodruff 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Miss  E.  C.  Cooke 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Miss  H.  A.  Case 





Miss  H.  A.  Case 





Miss  J.  V.  Sullivan 





Mrs.  J.  H.  Taylor 





Mrs.  J.  H.  Taylor 





Mrs.  P.  S.  Fletcher 





Mrs.  B.  P.  Gray 





Miss  C.  M.  Wesson 





Miss  C.  M.  Wesson 





American  uirchery 


50  yards 

40  yards 

30  yards 



Mrs.  S.  Brown 






Mrs.  T.  Davis 






No  contest 


No  contest 


Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






No  contest 


Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  A.  M.  Phillips 






Mrs.  A.  M.  Phillips 






Mrs.  A.  M.  Phillips 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  A.  Kern 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  J.  S.  Barker 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  C.  S.  Woodruff 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Miss  E.  C.  Cooke 






Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 






Miss  H.  A.  Case 






Miss  H.  A.  Case 






Miss  L.  M.  Witwer 






Mrs.  J.  H.  Taylor 




1 3 1-73 1  (a) 


Mrs.  J.  H.  Taylor 






Mrs.  L.  C.  Smith 




116-574 (b) 


Mrs.  B.  P.  Gray 






Miss  C.  M.  Wesson 






Miss  C.  M.  Wesson 





(a)  Same  as  Miss  Witwer,  married  during  the  interim. 

(b)  Mrs.  Smith  won  by  points,  Mrs.  P.  S.  Fletcher  making  114  hits,  586  score. 

National  Association  Records 


Rank  of  the  Winners  of 

the  Double  National  Round 










Mrs.  A.  M.  Phillips 





Miss  C.  M.  Wesson 





Miss  J.  V.  Sullivan 





Mrs.  B.  P.  Gray 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  C.  S.  Woodruff 





Mrs.  A.  Kern 





Mrs.  J.  S.  Barker 





Miss  H.  A.  Case 





Mrs.  J.  H.  Taylor 





Mrs.  A.  H.  Gibbs 





Mrs.  H.  Hall 





Mrs.  P.  S.  Fletcher 





Miss  E.  C.  Cooke 




Rank  of  the  Winners  of 

the  Double  Columbia  Round 










Mrs.  A.  M.  Phillips 





Miss  C.  M.  Wesson 





Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 





Mrs.  B.  P.  Gray 



143-839  • 


Mrs.  J.  H.  Taylor 





Mrs.  J.  S.  Barker 





Mrs.  A.  Kern 





Miss  H.  A.  Case 





Mrs.  C.  S.  Woodruff 





Mrs.  T.  Davis 





Mrs.  S.  Brown 


I 10-548 


82  American  Archery 

(4  a  side) 
72  arrows  at  40  yards  Hits-Score 

a  1 882     College  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio  182-  874 

1883  Highland  Archers,  Wyoming,  Ohio  238-1076 
96  arrows  at  50  yards 

1884  No  Contest 

1885  Highland  Archers,  Wyoming,  Ohio  291-1321 
ai886    Highland  Archers,  Wyoming,  Ohio  167-751 

1887  Robin  Hood  Archery  Club,  Dayton,  Ky.  279-1229 

1888  Robin  Hood  Archery  Club,  Dayton,  Ky.  263-1169 

1889  Robin  Hood  Archery  Club,  Dayton,  Ky.  222-  876 

1890  Walnut  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio  268-1192 

1 891  Walnut  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio  238-1070 

1892  No  Contest 

1893  Walnut  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio.    No 

other  team  present 

1894  Potomac  Archers,  Washington,  D.  C.     No  other 

team  present 

1895  No  Contest 

1896  Potomac  Archers,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1897  Potomac  Archers,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1898  Walnut  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio 

1899  Walnut  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio. 

other  team  present 

1900  Walnut  Hills  Archery  Club,  Cincinnati,  Ohio 

1901  Highland  Archers,  Wyoming,  Ohio 

1902  No  Contest 

1903  Cincinnati  Archery  Association 

1904  Cincinnati  Archery  Association 

1905  Chicago  Archery  Club 

1906  Boston  Archers 

1907  Chicago  Archery  Club 

1908  Chicago  Archery  Club 

1909  Chicago  Archery  Club 

19 10  Chicago  Archery  Club 

191 1  Chicago  Archery  Club 

1912  Boston  Archers 

1913  Newton  Archers,  Newton  Centre,  Mass. 

1914  Wayne  Archers,  Wayne,  Pa. 

191 5  No  Contest 

1916  Wayne  Archers,  Wayne,  Pa.  250-1088 

(a)    3  a  side. 







216-  938 

196-  864 























National  Association  Records 



1882  Mrs.  Frye,  Williamsport,  Pa. 

1883  No  contest 

1884  No  contest 

1885  No  contest 

1886  Mrs.  A.  M.  Phillips,  Battle  Creek,  Mich. 

1887  Mrs.  A.  M.  Phillips,  Battle  Creek,  Mich. 

1888  Miss  E.  C.  Cooke,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1889  Mrs.  A.  Kern,  Dayton,  Ohio 

1890  Mrs.  A.  Kern,  Dayton,  Ohio 

1891  Miss  E.  C.  Cooke,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1892  Mrs.  J.  G.  Graf,  Walnut  Hills,  Ohio 

1893  Miss  M.  E.  Strong,  Cincinnati,  Ohio 

1894  Miss  E.  C.  Cooke,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1895  Mrs.  J.  S.  Barker,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1896  Miss  E.  C.  Cooke,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1897  Miss  E.  C.  Cooke,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1898  No  contest 

1899  Mrs.  A.  Kern,  Dayton,  Ohio 

1900  Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell,  Norwood,  Ohio 

190 1  Miss  Georgie  Clark,  Wyoming,  Ohio 

1902  Miss  E.  C.  Cooke,  Washington,  D.  C. 

1903  Miss  Mabel  Taylor,  Cincinnati,  Ohio 

1904  Miss  Mabel  Taylor,  Cincinnati,  Ohio 

1905  No  contest 

1906  Mrs.  E.  W.  Frentz,  Melrose,  Mass. 

1907  Mrs.  Amelia  Barbe,  Chicago 

1908  Mrs.  W.  G.  Valentine,  Chicago 

1909  Mrs.  E.  W.  Frentz,  Melrose,  Mass. 

1910  Miss  L.  M.  Witwer,  Chicago 

191 1  Miss  F.  M.  Patrick,  Oak  Park,  111. 

1912  Mrs.  G.  P.  Bryant,  Melrose,  Mass. 

1913  Mrs.  G.  P.  Bryant,  Melrose,  Mass. 

1914  Mrs.  E.  W.  Frentz,  Melrose,  Mass. 

1915  No  contest,  on  account  of  rain 

1916  Miss  C.  M.  Wesson,  Cotuit,  Mass. 

Yards    Inches 



































204        33 

84  American  Archery 

The  following  tables  show  the  places  where 
the  Annual  Tournaments  of  the  National 
Archery  Association  have  been  held  and  the 
number  of  contestants  in  each. 

Men         Women        Total 











Buffalo,  N.  Y. 




Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 











Pullman,  111. 




Eaton,  Ohio 




Chautauqua,  N.  Y. 




Washington,  D.  C. 




Dayton,  Ohio 




Dayton,  Ohio 




Norwood,  Ohio 




Natural  Bridge,  Va. 




Fortress  Monroe,  Va. 




Dayton,  Ohio 




Washington,  D.  C. 




Dayton,  Ohio 




White  Sulphur  Springs,  Va. 




Washington,  D.  C 




Wyoming,  Ohio 




Norwood,  Ohio 












Mountain  Lake  Park,  Md. 




Niagara  Falls,  N.  Y. 
St.  Louis 










































Haverford,  Pa. 








Jersey  City,  N.  J. 




j8t  h Annual  Tournament  85 


Report  of  the  3 8th  Annual  Tournament 

of  the  National  Archery  Association, 

Held   at   Hudson    County  Park, 

Jersey  City,  N.  J.  on  August 

22,  23,  24  and  25TH,  1916 

By  James  Duff 

FOR  the  first  time  in  a  period  of  30  years 
the  above  Association  wandered  from  the 
beaten  track,  and  honored  the  famous  Scottish 
Archers  of  Jersey  City  with  the  housing  of 
the  national  event.  The  care  of  the  Tourna- 
ment was  placed  in  the  hands  of  a  capable 
Executive  Committee,  with  James  Duff  as 
President,  and  Robert  McNeil  as  Secretary, 
and  all  who  participated  in  that  year's 
gathering  declare  that  there  was  little  room 
for  improvement.  The  care  of  the  archers 
themselves  was  ideal,  the  weather  almost 
perfection,  and  the  fine  grounds,  granted  by 
the  Hudson  County  Park  Commissioners, 
everything  that  the  most  particular  archer 
could  demand. 

86  American  Archery 

Naturally  where  a  scare-heading  of  Infantile 
Paralysis,  was  staring  one  in  the  face  it  was 
not  to  be  expected  that  any  record  breaking 
attendance  was  to  be  looked  for,  but  despite 
that  great  drawback,  over  30  shooters  took 
part  in  the  Tournament,  and  during  the 
week  produced  something  more  than  ordinary 
archery.  The  shooting  was  of  a  very  high 

On  Monday  evening  a  deputation  of  the 
Jersey  Club,  paid  a  visit  to  the  Fairmount 
Hotel,  and  there  received  the  visiting  archers 
who  had  already  arrived.  On  Tuesday  even- 
ing the  members  of  the  National  Archery 
Association  were  received  by  invitation  at 
the  head  quarters  of  Clan  McLeod  O.  S.  C. 
of  whom  President  Duff  is  the  Chief;  and 
there  spent  a  happy  evening  in  forgetting 
points  of  aims,  targets,  etc.,  until  the  clock 
reminded  them  that  even  the  tireless  archer 
requires  a  little  sleep  if  he  desires  to  make 
any  show.  Speeches  were  plentiful  if  short 
and  sweet,  and  a  social  hour  of  song  made 
all  feel  as  though  the  visit  to  Jersey  City 
was  well  repaid. 

The  annual  business  meeting  was  held  at 
the  same  place  as  the  archers  had  selected 

38 1 h  Annual  Tournament  87 

for  headquarters,  and  this  year  it  was  greatly 
to  the  credit  of  the  ladies  that  they  turned 
out  in  goodly  numbers,  and  took  an  active 
part  in  the  business  of  the  Association. 
Among  the  principal  items  of  business  brought 
up  for  discussion  was  the  publication  of  a 
complete  book  on  archery  by  the  Association 
members,  and  as  this  work  is  well  advanced, 
and  will  not  deal  in  the  ancient  fiction  of  the 
sport  but  will  be  a  book  of  record  and  in- 
formation to  the  beginner  as  well  as  the  man 
who  knows  it  all,  there  should  be  quite  a 
demand  for  the  work. 

A  fitting  wind  up  to  a  glorious  week  of 
pleasure  was  the  banquet  at  Fairmount 
Hotel,  J.  C.  on  Friday  evening.  Something 
of  an  innovation  was  observed  when  headed 
by  a  piper,  some  forty  fully  Highland  dressed 
Scots  made  their  entry  into  the  dining  hall, 
in  honor  of  the  trust  the  Association  had 
placed  in  their  fellow  members.  The  evening 
was  spent  in  distribution  of  prizes,  speeches 
short  and  snappy  and  some  songs  rendered 
by  the  high  talented  artists,  the  Hamilton 
Brothers.  All  was  so  harmonious  that  every 
one  felt  that  it  was  too  bad  when  the  President 
called  for  a  last  standing  hand  clasp  and  a 


American  Archery 

verse  of  Auld  Lang  Syne.  It  is  hoped  that  the 
wishes  of  the  local  club  will  not  be  forgotten, 
when  we  all  sing  "Will  Ye  No  Come  Back 

The   following   are   records   of  the  week's 
work  at  the  range  and  the  winners. 

Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer 
Wayne,  Pa. 

James  S.  Jiles 

Homer  S.  Taylor 
Greenfield,  Mass. 

Dr.  O.  L.  Hertig 

C.  E.  Dallin 


ioo  yards  80  yards  60  yards 
49-207    39-187    23-139 
41-183     35-177    23-127 

Total     Golds 

in-  533     13 
99-  487      8 

9O-39O   74-364   46-266   2IO-I020   2] 

32-114  28-I32   20-  92 
32-160  36-162   24-I44 

80-  338    3 
92-  466   12 

64-274  64-294  44-236   I72-  804   15 

37-ISS   31-139  20-104 
38-ISO  33-131   22-  98 

88-  398  13 
93-  379   8 

7S~3 °5  64-270  42-202  181-777  21 

30-116  32-132  23-113 
21-121  33-147  18-  88 

84-  361      8 
72-  356      6 

51-237    65-279    41-201     157-  717    14 

30-108    28-144    20-104 
Arlington  Heights,  Mass.  26- 92     33-149    23-1 11 

78-  356      7 
82-  352       8 

56-200    61-293     43-2i5     160-  708     15 

G.  Phillips  Bryant 
Melrose,  Mass. 

27-  95     30-132     18-  92 
29-105     38-188     21-  99 

75"  319   4 
88-  392   7 

56-200  68-320  39-191  163-  711  11 

j8th  Annual  Tournament 


100  yards 

80  yards 

60  yards 



James  Duff 

19-  85 



69-  309 


Jersey  City 

23-  99 



68-  318 


137-  627 


W.  P.  Douthitt 


15-  63 

14-  72 

37-  243 



28-  86 


15-  69 

75"  259 





112-  502 


Dr.  E.  I.  Cole 

11-  39 


12-  52 

49-  199 


Ossining,  N.  Y. 

6-  24 

16-  68 

14-  68 

36-  160 

85-  359 


17-  63 




B.  P.  Gray 

8-  20 

15-  63 

14-  72 

37-  155 


Newton  Centre,  Mass. 

18-  68 

15-  61 


10-  54 

43"  183 
80-  338 


26-  88 


F.  T.  Leport 

11-  29 

11-  45 

14-  60 

36-  134 


Kansas  City,  Mo. 

12-  40 

19-  75 

16-  58 

47"  173 


23-  69 



83-  307 


S.  G.  McMeen 

7"  3i 

11-  29 

7-  23 

25-    83 


Columbus,  Ohio 

10-  30 

10-  50 
21-  79 

13-  55 
20-  78 

33-  135 
58-  218 


17-  61 


Hurlbut  A.  Ives 

6-  36 

8-  26 

6-  12 

20-    74 



4-  18 

7-  21 

10-  30 

21-    69 


10-  54    15-  47     16-  42      41-  143      1 


60  yards  50  yards  40  yards  Total     Golds 

Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer  27-155     29-175     30-202  86-  532     13 

Wayne,  Pa.  27-151     30-184     30-198  87-  533     17 

54-306    59-359    60-400     173-1065     30 


American  Archery 

James  S.  Jiles 

James  Duff 
Jersey  City- 

Homer  S.  Taylor 
Greenfield,  Mass. 

Dr.  O.  L.  Hertig 

G.  Phillips  Bryant 
Melrose,  Mass. 

W.  P.  Douthitt 

F.  T.  Leport 
Kansas  City,  Mo. 

60  yards 

50  yards 


40  yards 



Total    Golds 

87-  SIS    13 
86-  528     13 

54-310    60-352     59-381     173-1043     26 






87-  517   IS 

84-  490    16 

57-359    58-376     171-1007    31 



79-  455     10 
85-  469     13 

49-241     56-326    59-357     164-  924    23 




86-  454     n 
81-  383      7 

52-254    57-261     58-322     167-  837     18 

22-  84 
19-  87 


18-  70 



78-  416     10 
73"  399     17 

52-258    58-386     151-  815     27 



73-  355     11 
77-  395      5 

41-199    54-252    55-299     150-  750    16 

18-  91 
21-  86 

24-  92 


73-  366      7 
74"  359      9 

39-177    50-236    58-312     147-  725     16 

C.  E.  Dallin 

Arlington  Heights,  Mass. 

John  McRae 
Jersey  City 

21-  79 


20-  76 

21-  87 

23-  95 


82-  398      6 
73"  32i       5 

48-228     59-287 



[55-  719     11 

7^>-  352      5 
75-  359      5 

41-163     53-263     57-285       151  711     10 

j8th  Annual  Tournament 


Dr.  H.  G.  Goldberg 

Dr.  E.  I.  Cole 
Ossining,  N.  Y. 

Robert  W.  McNeil 
Jersey  City 

Hurlburt  A.  Ives 

Burton  P.  Gray 

S.  G.  McMeen 
Columbus,  Ohio 

Dr.  Edward  F.  Corson 
Cynwyd,  Pa. 

William  McOwen 
Jersey  City 

60  yards 
16-  56 

22-  84 

50  yards  40  yards 
22-  90 
25-1 15 


Total    Golds 

67-  283       3 
76-  366      7 

38-140    47-205     58-304     143-  649     10 

16-  56 
14-  76 

24-  98 



67-  326 
66-  306 

30-132  48-198  55-301  133-  631  16 

21-  83 
15-  57 

26-  96 
26-  92 


75-  307 
69-  265 

36-140  52-188  56-244  144-  572   s 

14-  60 

15-  67 

21-  99 
17-  71 

23-  95 

59-  275 
55-  233 

29-127  38-170  47-211  114-  508   6 

16-  64 
19-  91 

17-  67 

18-  72 

23-  95 
20-  88 

56-  226 

57-  251 

35-155  35-139  43-183  113-  477   8 

3-  13 
9"  23 

15-  75 
[6-  69 

16-  64 


34-  152 
45"  214 

12-  36  31-144  36-186   79-  366 

11-  27 

10-  28 

21-  55 

11-  51 

[6-  56 

19-  69 

52-  193 
47-  172 

34-131  44-179   99-  365   4 

18-  72 
15-  61 

14-  42 
18-  72 

43-  165 
41-  151 

19-  69  33-133  32-114   84-  316   7 

92  American  Archery 

Championship  Scores 

According  to  the  Constitution  the  cham- 
pionship shall  be  determined  by  adding  to- 
gether the  hits  and  scores  of  the  Double 
American  and  Double  York  Rounds.  Figur- 
ing on  this  basis  we  have  the  following  results: 








































Others  shot  only  one  Double  Round. 

Handicap  Prizes 

Handicap  prizes  were  offered  to  the  archers 
who  showed  the  greatest  improvement  in  the 
second  half  of  each  double  round. 

Handicap  York  Round,  won  by  James  S. 

Handicap  American  Round,  won  by  Dr. 
H.  G.  Goldberg. 

38th  Annual  Tournament 


1916  JERSEY  CITY,  N.  J. 

96  arrows  at  60  yards 

Keystone  Archers  ist24     2nd  24     3rd  24  4th  24  TOTAL 

Dr.  Elmer  23-129    24-138     22-100  24-126  93-  493 

W.  D.  Douthitt  21-  93     20-  92     17-  59  21-  99  79-  343 

J.  S.  Jiles  21-  93     22-  92     21-  99  19-  91  83-  375 

Dr.  Hertig  20-102     23-  89    22-  92  22-  88  87-  371 




86-404  342-1582 

Boston  Archers 

Homer  Taylor 

22-1 14 

22-  96 


22-104    87-  417 

Burton  P.  Gray 

16-  60 

18-  68 

13-  Si 

15-  65     62-  244 

Cyrus  E.  Dallin 

17-  71 

14-  46 

13-  49 

17-  73     61-  239 

G.  P.  Bryant 




22-102    88-  434 


76-244  298-1334 

Jersey  City  Archers 

Jas.  Duff 

20-  92 

22-  82 


21-  75     80-  330 

R.  W.  McNeil 

12-  44 

is-  71 

12-  50 

17-  69     56-  234 

John  Macrae 

18-  84 

19-  80 

17-  76 

IS"  59    7i-  299 

Dr.  Cole 

18-  82 

19-  83 

19-  85 

19-  79    75-  333 


72-282  282-1196 

Shooting  Independently 

H.  Ives,  Boston 

6-  30 

5-  15 

10-  40 

11-  41     32-  126 

F.  Leport,  Kansas  Citj 

r  15-  57 

18-  60 


16-  62    66-  262 

Wm.   McOwan, 



5-  21 

10-  44 

8-  32 

10-  36    33-  133 

S.  G.  McMeen, 



14-  58 

14-  48 

8-  20 

10-  50    46-  176 

40-166  47-167  43-175  47-186  177-  697 

Won  by  George  Phillips  Bryant. 
Distance  289  yards,  2  feet,  4  inches. 
This  is  only  8  inches  short  of  the  record  by  Maxson. 


American  Archery 


60  yards     50  yards        Total     Golds 

Miss  Cynthia  M.  Wesson 
Cotuit,  Mass. 

Miss  Norma  Pierce 

Mrs.  John  Dunlap,  Jr. 
Wayne,  Pa. 

Miss  F.  Maude  Dessau 
Sound  Beach,  Conn. 

Miss  Stella  M.  Ives 
Roslindale,  Mass. 

Dr.  Cockett 
Cotuit,  Mass. 

Mrs.  Robert  P.  Elmer 
Wayne,  Pa. 

Mrs.  F.  L.  Wesson 
Cotuit,  Mass. 

Miss  Edna  Wilson 













24-  74 


19-  63 
10-  34 

29-  97 




18-  78 

23-  73 

17-  65 
15-  61 





23-  93 
18-  62 

16-  46 
14-  68 





18-  72 

9-  25 
17-  61 

27-  97 


26-  86 


16-  70 
14-  48 

10-  38 
10-  40 

24-  88 


20-  78 


7"  15 

is-  51 

10-  54 

11-  39 

17-  69 

26-  90 

22-  66 

21-  93 


10-  50 

11-  31 

9-  25 
10-  26 

19-  75 
21-  57 

21-  81       19-  51       40-132 

38th  Annual  Tournament 



50  yards  40  yards  30  yards    Total    Golds 
Miss  Cynthia  M.  Wesson    21-95     24-162    24-194    69-451     21 
Cotuit,  Mass.  22-  96    24-140    24-160    70-396     10 

Miss  Norma  Pierce 

Miss  F.  M.  Dessau 
Sound  Beach,  Conn. 

Mrs.  John  Dunlap,  Jr. 
Wayne,  Pa. 

Mrs.  Robert  P.  Elmer 
Wayne,  Pa. 

Miss  Stella  M.  Ives 
Roslindale,  Mass. 

43-191  48-302  48-354  139-847 
22-  84  20-  88  24-134  66-306 
18-  70  21-103  24-108  63-281 

40-154  41-191  48-242  129-587  10 

12-  60  22-114  22-128  56-302 
20-  82  21-  91  21-109  62-282 

32-142  43-205  43-237  118-584 

17-  63  22-108  23-137  62-308 
J5-  53  21-113  22-100  58-266 

32-116  43-221  45-237  120-574 

16-  62  20-102  23-109  59-273 
11-  45  13-159  18-  92  42-196 

27-107  33-161  41-201  101-469   3 

!5-  75  17-104  21-129  54-308  10 
9-  27  15-  57  19-  65  43-149   1 

Dr.  Cockett 
Cotuit,  Mass. 

16-  72 

10-  58 

11-  41 

14-  56 







25-  97 




Mrs.  F.  L.  Wesson 
Cotuit,  Mass. 

7"  17 
10-  32 

9-  3i 
10-  38 




17-  49 

19-  69 




Miss  Edna  Wilson 

1-     1 

9"  27 

12-  56 
9-  35 

16-  84 
19-  73 




10-  28 

21-  91 





American  Archery 

Championship  Scores 


Miss  Wesson 



Miss  Pierce 



Mrs.  Dunlap 



Miss  Dessau 



Miss  Ives 



Dr.  Cockett 



Mrs.  Elmer 



Mrs.  Wesson 



Miss  Wilson 


1916  JERSEY  CITY,  N.  J. 


96  arrows  at  50  yds. 

Wayne  Archers 

1st   24     2nd  24 

3rd  24 

4th  24 


Cynthia  Wesson 

21-105     21-105 



87-  453 

Mrs.  Dunlop 

16-  68     11-  37 

IS-  59 

12-  44 

54-  208 

Mrs.  Elmer 

12-  52      7-  19 

10-  40 

12-  48 

4i-  159 

Dr.  Cockett 

14-  46    20-  72 
63-271     59-233 

16-  64 

18-  86 

68-  268 



Boston  Archers 

Norma  Pierce 

18-  90    21-  91 

19-  81 

15-  63 

73"  325 

F.  M.  Dessau 

17-  91    is-  69 

12-  56 

14-  70 

58-  286 

Mrs.  Wesson 

7-  25     11-  47 

9-  25 

16-  74 

43-  171 

Stella  M.  Ives 

14-  62    22-  88 

16-  64 

19-  73 

71-  287 

54-268  69-295  56-226  64-280  245-1069 


Won  by  Miss  Cynthia  Wesson 

Wand  Shoot  at  40  yards 
Won  by  Miss  Wesson     2  hits 
Dr.  Cockett  1  hit 




38 1 h  Annual  Tournament  97 

The  Women's  Handicap  Contests  were 
shot  out  in  full,  as  separate  events. 

Winner  of  Handicap  National,  Miss  Dessau. 
Made  188,  given  152,  total  340. 

Winner  of  Handicap  Columbia,  Mrs.  Wes- 
son.    Made  197,  given  286,  total  483. 

1916  JERSEY  CITY,  N.  J. 
Clan  McLeod  No.  70  O.S.C.  Novelty 
Competition  Cup 
The  competition  for  this  trophy — presented 
by  the  Jersey  City  Branch  of  the  Order  of 
Scottish  Clans — took  place  on  Friday  after- 
noon. The  Novelty  Competition  took  the 
form  of  a  duck  shoot.  The  figure  of  a  duck 
painted  black,  with  eye  and  breast  painted 
white,  was  placed  on  the  target  in  such 
manner  as  to  cover  the  gold.  Forty-eight 
arrows  were  shot  at  forty  yards  and  an  eye 
counted  3,  a  breast  2  and  any  other  part  of 
the  body  1.  Hits  were  added  to  score  in  final 
computation.  The  contest  resulted  in  a  tie  of 
28  each  between  Mr.  Leport  and  Mr.  Duff.  Six 
additional  rounds  of  6  arrows  each  were  shot 
without  a  decision.  In  the  seventh  round,  the 
hits  nearest  to  the  duck  were  counted  and 
Mr.  Duff  was  declared  victor  by  one  hit. 

98  American  Archery 

1916  JERSEY  CITY,  N.  J, 

Improved  Tournament  Score 

J.  S.  Jiles 




J.  Duff 




Dr.  Elmer 




H.  S.  Taylor 


1 701 


W.  D.  Douthitt 




C.  E.  Dallin 




Dr.  Hertig 




Miss  Norma  Pierce 


1 108 


G.  P.  Bryant 




E.  I.  Cole 


1 100 

Mrs.  R.  P.  Elmer 



Mrs.  Wesson 



Miss  Wesson 



B.  P.  Gray 



j8th  Annual  Tournament  99 

Combined  scores  in  Double  American  and 
Double  York  Rounds,  for  men,  and  Double 
Columbia  and  Double  National  for  women. 
Archer  showing  greatest  improvement  over 
his  or  her  last  tournament  score  wins.  No 
score  more  than  ten  years  old  to  be  con- 

Jiles  cup,  won  by  J.  S.  Jiles. 

1916  JERSEY  CITY,  N.  J. 


Christian  Science  Monitor  Shield  for  the 
most  hits  in  the  Double  National  and  Double 
Columbia  Rounds.  At  the  end  of  five  years, 
from  191 2,  to  become  the  property  of  the 
highest  of  five  winners. 

1912  Boston,  won  by  Mrs.  Witwer  Taylor,  Chicago  243  hits 

1913  Boston,  won  by  Mrs.  P.  S.  Fletcher,  Chicago  207    " 

1914  Haverford,  won  by  Mrs.  B.  P.  Gray,  Boston  270    " 

1915  Chicago,  won  by  Miss  C.  M.  Wesson,  Bryn  Mawr      274    " 

1916  Jersey  City,  won  by  Miss  C.  M.  Wesson,  Bryn  Mawr  262     " 

Awarded  to  Miss  Wesson  on  score  made  at 
Chicago  in  1915. 

ioo  American  Archery 

Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer. 

Champion  Archer  of  the  United  States. 
Awarded  Dallin  Medal  in  gold. 
York  Round  Medal. 
American  Round  Medal. 
Maurice  Thompson  Medal. 
"         Potomac  Medal. 
"         Chicago  Cup. 

Having  won  the  Chicago  Cup  for  the  third 
time  it  became  the  permanent  property  of 
Dr.  Elmer. 

James  S.  Jiles. 

Second  in  Championship  Contest. 
Awarded  Dallin  Medal  in  silver. 

"         80  yards  range  medal. 

"         Jiles  Cup. 

As  Captain  of  the  Keystone  Archers,  Mr. 
Jiles  was  made  custodian  of  the  Pearsall 

Homer  S.  Taylor. 

Third  in  Championship  Contest. 
Awarded  Dallin  medal  in  bronze. 

"         100  yards  range  medal. 

"         Spalding  medal. 

38th  Annual  Tournament  161 

James  Duff. 

Awarded    50    yards  range  medal.      Medal 

missing  since  1914  and  not  presented. 
Awarded  Clan  McLeod  Cup,  for  the  Duck 


Dr.  Hertig. 

Awarded  60  yards  range  medal. 

G.  P.  Bryant. 

Awarded  40  yards  range  medal. 
Ovington  Beaker. 

F.  E.  Leport. 

Awarded  Duff  Gold  Medal  for  highest  score 
in  the  Team  Shoot  made  by  an  archer 
who  was  not  a  member  of  a  team. 

John  MacRae. 

Awarded  the  Duff  Arrow. 

S.  G.  McMeen. 

Awarded  the  Elmer  Wooden  Spoon. 
Miss  Cynthia  M.  Wesson. 

Champion  Woman  Archer  of  the  United 

Awarded  Dallin  Medal  in  gold. 
"         National  Round  Medal. 
Columbia  Round  Medal. 
"         Weston  Trophy. 

102  American  Archery 

Made  custodian  of  the  Peacock  Cup  which 
was  won  by  the  Wayne  Archers. 

Awarded    the    Christian    Science    Monitor 
Shield  to  keep. 

Miss  Norma  Pierce. 

Second  in  Women's  Championship  Contest. 
Awarded  Dallin  Medal  in  silver. 
60  yards  range  medal. 

Mrs.  John  Dunlap,  Jr. 

Third  in  Women's  Championship  Contest. 
Awarded  Dallin  Medal  in  bronze. 
40  yards  range  medal. 

Miss  F.  M.  Dessau. 

Awarded  50  yards  range  medal. 
"         Maid  Marian  Arrow. 

Beach  Brooch,  by  virtue  of  being 
the  youngest  woman  present. 

Dr.  Marguerite  Cocket. 

Awarded  the  30  yard  range  medal. 

Eastern  Archery  Association  103 


The  Eastern  Archery  Association 
By  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 

THE  Eastern  Archery  Association  was 
formed  in  1879,  the  same  year  as  the 
National  Archery  Association,  for  the  purpose, 
stated  in  its  constitution,  of  associating  under 
one  general  management  and  head,  the  vari- 
ous archery  societies  of  the  Eastern  United 
States.  Membership  was  not  held  by  in- 
dividuals, but  by  clubs,  the  following  being 
the  founders  of  the  association: 

The  Pequosette  Archers  Watertown,  Mass. 

The  Waltham  Archers  Waltham,  Mass. 

The  Orchard  Archers  Fitchburg,  Mass. 

The  Oritani  Archers  Hackensack,  N.  J. 

The  West  Newton  Archery  Club  West  Newton,  Mass. 

The  Toxarchs  Newton,  Mass. 

The  Greenfield  Archers  Greenfield,  Mass. 

The  Maple  Grove  Archers  Springfield,  Mass. 

The  Massasoit  Bowmen  Springfield,  Mass. 

The  constitution  adopted  was  identical 
with  that  of  the  National  Archery  Associa- 
tion, except  for  the  proper  names. 

Inasmuch  as  all  but  one  of  the  charter 
societies    was    from   Masschusetts,    the   first 


American  Archery 

tournament  was  held  at  Beacon  Park,  Boston, 
on  the  25th  and  26th  of  September,  1879,  a 
few  weeks  after  the  first  National  Tourna- 
ment had  been  held  at  Chicago. 

The  following  clubs  were  represented: 

Men      Women 

The  Pequosette  Archers     6              4 

Watertown,  Mass. 

The  Waltham  Archers        1              1 



The  Oritani  Archers           5               0 

Hackensack,  N.  J. 

The  West  Newton  A.  C.    5              4 

West  Newton,  Mass. 

The  Brooklyn  A.  C.           5              0 


N.  Y. 

The  Toxophilites                6              0 



The  Cedarwoods                 4               0 

Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y. 

Robin  Hood  Archers           1               0 

Nyack,  N 

.  Y. 

Ellenville  A.  C.                 Not  known 

Ellenville,  N 

f.  Y. 

rhe  best  scores  were: 

Double  American  Round  (Championship) 

1.    E.  R.  Dwight,  Watertown 


2.    H.  Ennis,  Poughkeepsie 


3.   J.  0.  Blake,  Chicago  (with  Brooklyn) 


Men's  Team,  Single  American  Round 

Brooklyn  A.  C. 

J.  G.  Johnston 


J.  0.  Blake 


Major  A.  G.  Constable 


Dr.  D.  F.  Wemple 


Double  Columbia  Round  (Champions! 


1.    Miss  Silsbee,  Watertown 


2.    Miss  Allen,  West  Newton 


3.   Miss  Walker,  Watertown 


Eastern  Archery  Association  105 

Women's  Team,  Single  Columbia  Round 

Pequosette  Archers 

Miss  Silsbee 


Miss  Walker 


Mrs.  Shackford 



The  second  tournament  was  held  at  Ridge 
Hill  Farms,  Wellesley,  Mass.,  on  September 
1st  and  2nd,  1880.  Ten  archery  clubs  were 
represented  by  31  men  and  9  women. 

Best  scores: 

Double  York  Round  (Championship) 

1.    L.  L.  Peddinghaus,  Marietta,  Ohio 


2.    F.  H.  Brackett,  Roxbury,  Mass. 


3.    W.  G.  Morse,  Poughkeepsie 


Men's  Team  Round  (72  arrows  at  60  yards) 

Hawthorne  Archers,  Roxbury 

F.  H.  Brackett 


Howard  Brackett 


James  Dwight 


F.  D.  Ritzer 



Double  Columbia  Round  (Championship) 

1.    Miss  Abba  Agar,  Jamaica  Plain,  Mass. 


2.    Miss  E.  L.  Magee,  Watertown,  Mass. 


3 .   Miss  Allen,  West  Newton,  Mass. 


Women's  Team  Round  (72  arrows  at  50  yards) 

Jamaica  Plain  Archers 

Miss  A.  Agar 


Miss  J.  Agar 


Miss  J.  Sprague 



106  American  Archery 

The  records  of  the  association  from  this 
time  until  191 1  are  lost.  It  is  known  that 
tournaments  were  held,  but  various  inquiries 
have  failed,  as  yet,  to  elicit  any  satisfactory 
information  concerning  them. 

In  a  letter  to  Dr.  Weston,  in  19 14,  Mr. 
Will  H.  Thompson  wrote,  "We  came  near 
wrecking  archery  at  one  time  over  the  attempt 
to  change  the  value  of  the  colors  on  the  target 
to  I,  2,  3,  4  and  5.  The  Eastern  Archery 
Association  adopted  the  silly  change  for  no 
technical  reason  whatever." 

In  the  Spalding  Official  Archery  Guide, 
written  by  Dr.  Weston  in  1909,  he  states, 
"In  recent  years  the  members  of  the  Eastern 
Archery  Association  have  shot  on  their  local 
ranges,  and  reported  the  scores  to  the  Secre- 
tary. This  has  constituted  the  annual  meet- 

Let  us  hope  that  these  records  may  yet  be 

In  the  fall  of  191 1,  H.  B.  Richardson, 
President  of  the  National  Archery  Associa- 
tion, issued  a  call  to  all  archers  in  the  Eastern 
United  States  to  hold  a  tournament  on 
November  nth,  to  compete  for  the  champion- 
ship medals  of  the  Eastern  Archery  Associa- 

Eastern  Archery  Association  107 

tion,  which  were  then  in  the  possession  of 
Wallace  Bryant.  Those  archers  who  could 
do  so  were  expected  to  shoot  on  the  Play- 
grounds at  Newton  Centre,  Mass.,  but  those 
who  could  not  be  there  were  allowed  to  shoot 
on  any  range  and  send  their  scores  in  to  Mr. 
Richardson  to  be  recorded. 

Eight  men  and  seven  women  competed 
at  Newton  Centre  and  seven  men  at  Wayne, 
Pa.    No  other  localities  were  represented. 

Inasmuch  as  the  original  constitution  of 
the  Eastern  Archery  Association  was  tem- 
porarily lost,  the  rules  of  this  and  the  succeed- 
ing tournaments  were  modelled  as  closely  as 
possible  on  those  of  the  National  Archery 

Best  scores: 

Single  York  Round 

1.  Wallace  Bryant,  Boston 

2.  G.  P.  Bryant,  Melrose 

3.  H.  B.  Richardson,  Boston 


Single  American  Round 

1.  G.  P.  Bryant 

2.  Wallace  Bryant 

3.  H.  B.  Richardson 


Single  National  Round 

1.  Miss  Helen  Hutchinson 

2.  Miss  F.  Bogert 

3.  Miss  H.  Davis 


108  American  Archery 

The  tournament  for  191 2  was  also  held  as 
a  mail-match,  the  date  being  set  for  October 
1 2th,  thereby  setting  the  precedent  of  having 
the  tournament  either  on  Columbus  Day  or 
as  near  it  as  possible.  The  list  of  entries 
was  much  longer  than  in  the  previous  year, 
there  being  24  men  and  18  women.  Among 
the  former  were  six  Scottish-American  Archers 
from  Jersey  City  and  several  individuals  from 
widely  scattered  points.  Six  men  and  seven 
women  were  from  western  cities  and  so  were 
not  considered  eligible  for  the  prizes  although 
their  scores  added  interest  to  the  competition. 

Best  scores: 

Single  York  Round 

1.   G.  P.  Bryant 


2.   W.  H.  Wills,  New  York  City 


3.    H.  B.  Richardson 


Single  American  Round 

I.    G.  P.  Bryant 


2.    G.  L.  Nichols,  Chicago 


3.    Dr.  Hertig,  Pittsburgh 


Single  National  Round 

1.    Miss  Helen  Hutchinson,  Boston 


2.    Miss  F.  M.  Patrick,  Brooklyn 


3.    Miss  C.  Wesson,  Cotuit,  Mass. 


Single  Columbia  Round 

1.    Mrs.  Witwer-Taylor,  Chicago 


2.    Miss  H.  Hutchinson                      (Winner) 


3.    Mrs.  G.  Wallace,  Des  Moines 


Eastern  Archery  Association  109 

The  success  attending  these  mail-matches 
made  it  seem  advisable  to  adopt  normal 
tournament  conditions  for  the  contest  in 
191 3,  so  an  invitation  was  given  by  the  Wayne 
Archers  for  a  meeting  in  that  place  on  the 
4th  of  July. 

The  tournament  was  held  in  connection 
with  other  field  sports  and  was  witnessed  by 
fully  two  thousand  people.  Different  ranges 
were  used  in  the  morning  and  afternoon  but 
on  neither  of  them  was  there  space  enough 
to  shoot  the  York  Round.  Only  the  Double 
American  Round  was  shot,  there  being  no 
women  contestants.  Eighteen  men,  coming 
from  seven  different  places,  were  present. 

Best  scores: 

Double  American  Round 

1.    Dr.  Elmer,  Wayne  88-  528 

86-  504 


2.    A.  C.  Hale,  Wayne  82-  404 

84-  492 

166-  896 

3.   Dr.  Hertig,  Pittsburgh  82-  398 

83-  439 

165-  837 

no  American  Archery 

In  1914  the  tournament  was  held  in  Jersey 
City,  on  the  invitation  of  the  Scottish- 
American  Archers.  The  shooting  filled  three 
days,  October  8th,  9th  and  10th,  giving  ample 
time  for  the  full  Double  York  and  Double 
American  Rounds. 

Best  scores: 

Double  York  Round 

1.   James  S.  Jiles,  Pittsburgh 


2.    Dr.  Hertig 


3.   H.  S.  Taylor,  Buffalo 


Although  the  best  score  was  made  by  Jiles, 
the  Championship  was  awarded  to  Hertig  on 
points,   viz: 




Total  hits         2 

Total  score 


Hits  at  ioo       i 

Score  at  80 


Half  hits  at  60 


Score  at  ioo     i 

Score  at  60 


Hits  at  80         1 

Half  hits  at  60 




Double  American  Round 

1.   James 

Duff,  Jersey  City 


2.   James 



3.    Dr.  Hertig 


Handicap  medals  for  both  events  were  won 
by  McRae,  of  Jersey  City. 

In  191 5  a  two  day  tournament,  on  October 
8th  and  9th,  was  to  be  held  at  Newton  Centre, 

Eastern  Archery  Association  in 

Mass.,  but  the  weather  conditions  were  so 
bad  that  the  competition  had  to  be  confined 
to  the  second  day.  A  few  archers  shot  for 
practice  in  the  afternoon  of  the  first  day  and 
Mrs.  Gray  made  an  American  round  score 
of  84-474,  which  was  higher  than  the  score 
that  won. 

Twenty  men  and  seven  women  took  part. 

Best  scores: 

Single  York  Round 

1.    C.  E.  Dallin,  Arlington  Heights,  Mass. 


2.   H.  S.  Taylor,  Buffalo 


3.   G.  P.  Bryant 


Single  American  Round 

1.    C.  E.  Dallin 


2.    Dr.  H.  B.  Richardson 


3.   James  Duff 


Double  National  Round 

1.   Mrs.  B.  P.  Gray,  Newton  Centre 


2.    Mrs.  G.  P.  Bryant,  Melrose 


3.    Miss  Ives,  Roslindale,  Mass. 


Double  Columbia  Round 

1.    Mrs.  B.  P.  Gray 


2.   Miss  Norma  Pierce,  Boston 


3.    Mrs.  G.  P.  Bryant 


Since  the  revival  of  the  tournaments  of 
the  Eastern  Archery  Association,  each  had 
been  a  more  successful  occasion  than  the 
one  of  the  previous  year.  That  of  19 16  was 
held  at  Newton  Centre  on  October  12th  and 


American  Archery 

13  th  and  was  considered,  by  archers  of  experi- 
ence, to  have  been  the  best  of  all.  The  full 
scores  follow: 

Double  York  Round 


James  Duff 





F.  I.  Peckham 





G.  P.  Bryant 





C.  T.  Switzler 





A.  Shepherdson 





L.  C.  Smith 





E.  J.  Cole 





H.  A.  Ives 





S.  W.  Wilder 


29-1 13a 



T.  H.  Uzzell 





J.  C.  Bushong 





J.  P.  True 

24-  92 




J.  McOwen 

25-  94 

32-  98 



Ellis  Spear 




S.  E.  Hall 

28-  90 

28-  90 


American  Round 


A.  Shepherdson 





James  Duff 





E.  W.  Frentz 





G.  P.  Bryant 





F.  I.  Peckham 





C.  T.  Switzler 





L.  C.  Smith 





E.  J.  Cole 





H.  A.  Ives 





C.  W.  Dallin 





Elles  Spear 





F.  J.  Lightbody 





J.  C.  Bushong 





T.  H.  Uzzell 





J.  McOwen 





S.  W.  Wilder 




J.  P.  True 





S.  E.  Hall 




H.  S.  Bouker 



a  Second  round  was  not  finished. 

Eastern  Archery  Association  113 

In  the  manner  prescribed  by  the 

new  con- 

stitution  of  the  National  Archery  Association 

the  Champion  was  : 

round  by  adding  together 

the  total  hits  and  scores  in  both  double  rounds. 

By  this  method  the  first  th 

ree  men  were: 

1.   James 



2.    F.  I.  Peckham 


3.    A.  Shepherdson 


Double  National  Round 

1.    Mrs.  B.  P.  Gray 



11 1-557 

2.    Miss  C.  M.  Wesson 




3.    Miss  S.  Ives 




4.    Miss  N.  True 




5.    Miss  N.  Pierce 



6.    Mrs.  F.  Wesson 

25-  79 

20-  84 


7.   Mrs.  T.  H.  Uzzell 

19-  45 

13-  73 


8.   Mrs.  A.  Shepherdson 

11-  45 

11-  33 

22-  78 

9.    Miss  Ruth  Brewer 

19-  69 

19-  69 

10.   Mrs.  J.  P.  True 

1-    5 

2-    6 

3-  11 

Double  Columbia  Round 

1.   Miss  C.  M.  Wesson 




2.   Mrs.  B.  P.  Gray 




3.    Miss  N.  True 




4.   Miss  S.  Ives 




5.    Mrs.  E.  W.  Frentz 



6.    Miss  Norma  Pierce 


7.    Mrs.  J.  P.  True 

13-  49 



8.    Mrs.  T.  H.  Uzzell 




9.    Miss  Dorothy  Smith 



10.   Mrs.  F.  Wesson 

24-  85 



11.    Miss  Ruth  Brewer 

20-  70 

24-  98 


12.    Mrs.  A.  Shepherdson 



By  totals  Mrs.  Gray  was  first  with  1532, 
Miss  Wesson  got  1464. 

114  American  Archery 


Best    Scores    of   All    Kinds   and    Feats 
of  Skill 

By  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 

IT  HAS  been  the  good  fortune  of  very  few 
archers  to  make  their  best  scores  at  the 
large  tournaments,  so  that  the  records  of 
these  events  do  not  give  a  fair  idea  of  what 
many  of  the  contestants  are  capable  of  doing 
when  every  circumstance  is  favorable.  Fur- 
thermore, some  of  the  most  skillful  archers  in 
the  country  have  been  so  situated  that  they 
have  never  been  able  to  do  more  than  shoot 
by  themselves  or  in  the  company  of  a  few 

This  article  is  written  for  the  purpose  of 
rescuing  from  oblivion  the  best  scores  that 
have  been  made  under  any  conditions.  Some 
of  them  can  be  vouched  for  by  no  one  but 
the  archer  himself,  but  many  were  made  in 
club  contests  or  before  witnesses  in  other  ways. 
Wherever  it  is  known  to  the  editor  that  other 
people  saw  a  score  made  he  has  mentioned 
the  fact. 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds 


Of  necessity  these  lists  are  incomplete. 
Without  doubt  there  are  many  fine  scores  that 
the  editor  does  not  know  anything  about, 
but  he  has  made  a  careful  search  of  all  the 
data  at  his  disposal  and  he  feels  safe  in  asserting 
that  the  tabulated  results  form  a  pretty  good 
index  of  the  best  that  is  in  American  archery. 


i.   E.  J.  Rendtorff 
Lake  Forest,  111. 



2.   I.  W.  Maxson  30-204 

Washington,  D.  C.    30-226 
(Died  2  July,  1916)  30-240 

Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer 
Wayne,  Pa. 

W.  A.  Clark 

Cincinnati,  Ohio 
(Died  20  Oct.,  1913) 

J.  B.  Siders 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. 





Shot  at  Lake  Forest,  111., 
3  P.  M.,  Monday,  2  June,  1913, 
in  private  match  with  Prof. 
Bross  Thomas.  Reported  For- 
est y  Stream,  28  June,  191 3. 

Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 
Particulars  unknown. 

Private   practice,  17  Septem- 
ber, 191 7. 

Made  in  club  contest  of  High- 
land Archers  of  Wyoming.Ohio. 
Score  shown  Dr.  Elmer  by  Mr. 

Reported  by  Dr.  Weston  in 
Christian  Science  Monitor,  14 
January,  1914. 



American  Archery 

6.  M.  Sorber 

Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

7.  Arthur  Young 

San  Francisco,  Cal. 



Club  contest.     Scored  and  re- 
ported by  Dr.  Hertig. 

Witnessed  and  scored  by  Dr. 
Pope.     25  March,  1917. 


F.  C.  Havens 
Oakland,  Cal. 

W.  J.  Holmes 

C.  C.  Beach 
Battle  Creek 



G.  P.  Bryant 

H.  W.  Bishop 



Reported  by  Dr.  Weston,  P. 
112  Spalding's  Guide,  2nd  Edi- 
tion.   Shot  in  a  match. 




Club  contest,  22  Nov.,  191 3. 
Scored  by  Dr.  Hertig. 




Private  practice  in  the  autumn 
of  1908.  Reported  by  Mr. 
Beach  to  Dr.  Weston  for 
publication  in  Spalding's  Arch- 
ery Guide. 

American  Record.  National 
Tournament  at  Boston,  1912. 







Private  practice,  Dec,  1912. 
Reported  in  Forest  fcf  Stream, 
28  Dec,  1912. 

13.    H.  S.  Taylor 

Greenfield,  Mass. 


Club  contest,  Chicago  Archery 
Association,  30  August,  191 3. 
Scored  by  Mr.  Pendry. 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds 


14.    Dr.  O.  L.  Hertig 



[5.   Miss  C.  M.  Wesson      30-186 

Cotuit,  Mass.  30-186 


Club  contest  for  the  3rd  N.  A. 
A.  Mail  Match,  October,  1913. 

Private  practice,  21  July,  1915. 
Reported  by  letter  for  this 



W.  D.  Douthitt 


Club  contest.  Scored  by  Dr. 


G.  L.  Nichols 


Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 


A.  R.  Clark 
Berea,  Ohio 



Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 



Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell 



Private  practice,  25  July,  1883. 
Letter  of  28  May,  19 17,  from 
Mrs.  Howell. 



C.  E.  Dallin 

Arlington  Heights, 



Club  contest  of  the  Newton 
Archers,  10  October,  1914. 
Scored  by  L.  C.  Smith. 


J.  S.  Jiles 


Club  contest  Pittsburgh  Arch- 
ers, 9  July,  1916. 


Dr.  C.  S.  Case     • 



Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 



American  Archery 


B.  P.  Gray 


Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 





J.  Duff 


Private   practice,    21    August, 

Jersey  City 

1916,  at  Jersey  City.     Scored 
by   F.  T.    Leport  of   Kansas 
City,  Mo. 


F.  I.  Peckham 


Club  contest,  Newton  Archers, 



9  July,  19 14.    Scored  by  L.  C. 





F.  E.  Canfield 


Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 


Mrs.  B.  P.  Gray 


Private   practice.      Scored   by 

Newton  Centre 



B.  P.  Gray.     26  golds. 


Dr.  J.  W.  Doughty 
Fort  Steilacoom, 


Private  practice. 


S.  W.  Wilder 


Club  contest,  Newton  Archers. 


J.  A.  Rose 

Crawfordsville,  Inc 


Reported  by  Dr.  Weston 


Dr.  H.  G.  Goldberg 


Cynwyd  Club  contest,  27  July, 

Bala,  Pa. 



1915.     Scored  by  Dr.  Corson. 


Dr.  S.  T.  Pope 


Private    practice  with  Arthur 

San  Francisco 


Young,  24  May,  191 7. 


Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds 


33.    F.N.Clay 

Newark,  N.  J. 



T.  T.  Hare 
Radnor,  Pa. 

Mrs.  E.  E.  Trout 
Wayne,  Pa. 

36.   J.  H.  Pendry 








Private  practice. 

Private    practice    at    Radnor, 
Pa.    Fall  of  1914. 

Private   practice. 
E.  E.  Trout. 

Scored   by 

37.   S.  G.  McMeen  28-138 

Columbus,  Ohio        29-169 


Club  contest,  Chicago  Archery 
Association,  1913. 

Private  practice,  23  March, 
19 1 7,  on  the  Polo  Field  at 
Honolulu.       Score     witnessed 


aiiu  tiicca-eu  uy  lvira.  iviciviceii. 


L.  C.  Smith 
Newton  Centre 


Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 


W.  B.  Worstall 
Zanesville,  Ohio 


Reported  by  Dr.  Weston 
Private  practice. 


Tacitus  Hussey 
Des  Moines,  Iowa 


Private  practice,  3  May,  1913, 
Des  Moines.  Scored  by  Mrs. 
H.  W.  Turner.  Mr.  Hussey 
was  82  years  old. 



H.  L.  Walker 


Club  contest,  Chicago  Archery 
Association,  1913. 



American  Archery 






90-  680 

Private  practice. 




90-  668 






90-  648 

Public  exhibition  at  Wash- 




90-  666 

ington  Grove,  Md.,  11 
July,  1890. 






90-  636 






W.  Clark 


Club  contest  of  Highland 
Archers  of  Wyoming,  Ohio 


90-  612 
90-  608 



90-  610 
87-  601 






89-  623 

Club    contest,    22    Nov., 




89-  587 






89-  593 

Private  practice,  11   Jan., 




90-  608 

1914.     Temperature  30. 






89-  585 




88-  590 


Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds 



30-172     30-214     30-220 


90-  540 
90-  606 

90-  566 
90-  564 

R.  Williams 

1 77-1 129 



90-  556 
90-  562 


27-175     30-192 
29-169     29-181 


86-  566 
88-  542 

1 74-1 108 

Miss  Wesson 



Mrs.  Gray 

28-162     30-164 
29-147    30-196 


88-  496 

89-  553 

Mrs.  Trout 

26-150    30-186  30-192 

29-155     30-158  30-206 


28-154     28-184  30-200 

28-128     30-170  30-184 

A.  Clark 


86-  528 
89-  519 


86-  538 
88-  482 


Club  contest,  9  July,  1916. 

Ohio  State  Championship, 


Private  practice,  21  Aug. 

1916.     Scored  by  Leport 

and  Jiles. 

Club  contest,  Scottish- 
American  Archers,  July, 

Private  practice.  Scored 
by  Mr.  Gray. 

15    and    17    Sept.,    1914. 
Scored  by  Mr.  Trout. 

National  Tournament, 

122  American  Archery 



68-308     47-237     24-156     141-  799       Private  practice,  1913. 
68-336    48-234    24-154     140-  722 

R.  Williams 
59-293     45-239    24-176     128-  708      August  9  and  10,  1885. 
62-274    45-229    24-152     131-655 

G.  P.  Bryant 

57-269    47-235     24-142     128-  646      Shot  in  club  contests  of 
61-293     45-251     24-158     130-702      the  Newton  Archers,  July, 


H.  S.  Taylor 

56-260    44-204    23-147     123-  611 
117-  591 

W.  A.  Clark 

250-1192  Club    contest,    Highland 
Archers,  Wyoming,  Ohio. 

55-243     44-204    23-149     122-  596  Both  rounds  shot  the  same 

57-245     43-199    24-134     124-  578  afternoon,  Oct.  4,  1913,  in 

competition      with     Mr. 

246-1174  Holmes. 

53_253     42-196    24-144     119-  593  Shot  Oct.  4th  and  Sept. 

45-183     42-204     24-144     in-  531  27th  in  club  contests. 


50-210    43-217    22-117     115-  545      American    Record.      Na- 
46-190    46-238     24-138     116-  566      tional  Tournament,  1910. 


Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds  123 

51-237    41-191     21-111     113-  539      July  26  and  27,  1913,  in 
49-203     42-212     22-120     113-535       competition  w  i  t  h  W  i  1 1 


W.  H.  Thompson 
41-173     44-226    23-121     108-  520      October,  1882. 
50-194    43-217    24-132     117-  543 


68-336    48-234    24-154     140-  722      Private  practice,  1913. 

R.  Williams 
59-293     45-239    24-176     128-  708      August  9,  1885. 

G.  P.  Bryant 
61-293     45-251     24-158     130-702       Club  contest,  July,  1912. 

H.  S.  Taylor 

57-257    44-252    24-156     125-  665      Club  contest,  Chicago  A. 

A.,  July,  191 1. 


123-  635       Private     practice,     July, 

W.  A.  Clark 

63-247    48-204     24-136     135-587      October  31,  1883. 


55-243     44-204     23-149     122-  596      Oct.    4,    191 3,    with    Mr. 


53-253    42-I96    24-144     119-  593       Oct.  4,  1913,  in  competi- 
tion with  Dr.  Hertig. 
49-201     42-226    24-152     115-  579      Private     practice,     Aug., 

W.  H.  Wills 
41-217    42-208    24-146    117-  571 


American  Archery 


46-190    46-238 

W.  H.  Thompson 
50-194    43-217 


116-  566      National  Tournament, 

[17-  543 




Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 



Club  contest,  Pittsburgh  Archers. 



Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 




Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 

Adam  Gray- 


Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 

Dr.  W.  C.  Williams 



Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 

B.  P.  Gray 


Club  contest.    Newton  Archers. 

MEN'S  TEAM  ROUND  (60  yards) 
Rendtorff  96-664      Private  practice. 

H.  S.  Taylor  96-638 

About  1883.  Mail  match  with  F.  H. 
Walworth,  of  New  York.  Witnessed 
by  H.  C.  Carver  and  Dr.  Weston. 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds 




Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 


W.  A.  Clark 






A.  W.  Houston 
Evanston,  Ohio 










A.  E.  Spink 



November  25,  1897.     In  Spalding's 

Private    match    with   A.    C.    Hale, 
Aug.  9,  1912. 

Aug.,  1883.  Member  of  team  of  the 
Highland  Archers,  of  Wyoming, 
Ohio,  at  Ohio  State  Meeting. 

Club    contest,    Pittsburgh    Archers, 


Club    contest,  Pittsburgh    Archers, 


Club   contest,   Pittsburgh   Archers, 


Club    contest,    Pittsburgh   Archers, 


Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 



American  Archery 

C.  S.  Upson 

Cincinnati,  Ohio 



Reported  by  Dr.  Weston. 

Dr.  H.  E.  Jones 
Portland,  Oregon 




Before  1914.     Dr.  Jones  was  very- 
deaf  and  usually  shot  alone.    Some- 
times he  shot  with  F.  S.  Barnes,  the 


Women's  Scores 

Mrs.  B.  P.  Gray,  Newton  Centre,  Mass. 

In  a  letter  from  her  husband,  dated  July 
12th,  1916,  Mrs.  Gray's  best  scores  were  given 
as  follows: 

Single  Columbia  Round  21-123 

Columbia  Handicap.     Nationa 
Tournament,  1914. 


Double  Columbia  Round 
23-121     24-138     24-180      71-439 
24-118     24-120    24-162      72-400 

National  Tournament,  1914 


This  event  was  so  closely  contested  that  the 
relative  position  of  the  first  three  ladies, 
Mrs.  Gray,  Mrs.  Trout  and  Miss  Wesson, 
was  decided  by  the  last  arrow. 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds  127 

Single  National  Round      70-398       Columbus  Day  Tournament  of 

the  Newton  Archers,  Newton 
Centre  Playground,  October  12, 

Single  American  Round  29-147  Practice  at  Newton  Centre 
30-196  Playground,  June  22nd,  1915. 
30-210       Scored  by  Mr.  Gray. 


A  Womans'  Team  Round  mentioned  in  a 

letter  of  August  5th,  1914,  is  presumably  her 

best.    Score : 



At  the  Columbus  Day  Tournament  at 
Newton  Centre,  August  12th,  1914,  she  won 
the  Women's  Team  Round  with  94-516. 

Mrs.  M.  C.  Howell,  Norwood,  Ohio. 

Mrs.  Howell  won  the  Womans'  Champion- 
ship 17  times,  a  record  which  probably  will 
never  be  beaten. 

In  response  to  a  request,  Mrs.  Howell 
kindly  sent  her  best  scores  for  publication 
in  this  book,  writing  May  28th,  1917.  They 
follow  in  full: 

128  American  Archery 

Double  National  Round 

85-477        Practice.    June  26th,  1883. 


88-436        Ohio    State    Meet.      Pleasant    Ridge.      Charles 
47-283         Strong's  grounds.    August,  1904. 


85-413        National  Tournament.    Ludlow  Grove,  Cincinnati. 
47-277        July  10th,  1883. 


82-402        Practice. 


Single  National  Round 

47-291        Practice.     June  14th,  i\ 


47-261        Practice.    June  12th,  1884. 


45-249        Practice.    June  3rd,  1884. 


Double  Columbia  Round 

46-312        "My  best  practice  score."    June  30th,  1884. 

48-358        Shot  in  one  afternoon. 



Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds  129 

24-150     24-150     24-192       72-492  National  Tournament  at 

24-140     24-166     24-192       72-498  White    Sulphur   Springs. 

August,  1896. 


24-134    24-148    24-190      72-472  Norwood,     Oh;,,,     Sept. 

24-156    24-168    24-184      72-508  29th,  1898. 


46-272     National   Tournament.    Ludlow   Grove,    Cincinnati, 

48-316    Ohio,  July  1 2th,  1883. 



Single  Columbia  Round 

23-147         Practice  at  Wyoming,  Ohio,  August  31st,  1883. 




24-138        Practice.    August  10th,  1895. 




24-166        Practice.     July  28th,  1883. 




22-144        National  Tournament.    Dayton,  Ohio,  August  21st, 

24-178         1895. 



130  American  Archery 

(Editor's  Note:  It  is  obvious  that  one  or 
both  of  the  single  rounds  making  up  the 
Double  Columbia  Round  of  1048  must  have 
been  greater  than  the  scores  here  given.) 

Single  American  Round 
28-174        Practice.     July  25th,  1883. 


Ladies'  Team  Round  (96  arrows  at  50  yards) 

24-146        National    Tournament,    White    Sulphur    Springs, 


August  20th,  1896. 





Also  made  at  the  National  Tournament  at  White 


Sulphur  Springs,  1896. 


23-1 is 


(96  arrows  at 

40  yards) 


National  Tournament,  Dayton,  August  23rd,  1895. 





"I    allowed    myself    no    practice    arrows, 
before  beginning  my  scoring." 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds  131 

Miss  Cynthia  M.  Wesson,  Cotuit,  Mass. 

{Sometimes  of  Bryn  Mawr,  Pa.) 

Writing  under  date  of  May  9th,  1916,  Miss 
Wesson  gives  her  best  practice  scores  as 
follows : 

Single  National  Round 

48-314        July  17th,  1915.     24  golds. 


Single  Columbia  Round 

24-170        July  18th,  1915.     37  golds. 




Single  American  Round 

30-186        July  21st,  1915.     27  golds. 




Miss  Mary  Williams,  Chicago,  III. 

On  June  nth,  1910,  in  a  club  contest  of 
the  Chicago  Archery  Association,  when  only 
12  years  of  age,  Miss  Williams  shot  a  Single 
National  Round,  which  made  a  record,  so 
far  as  we  know,  for  so  young  an  archer. 

60  50  Total 


43-251    22-130    65-381 

132  American  Archery 

While  the  foregoing  scores  show  the  best 
performances  at  the  targets  and  ordinary 
ranges,  there  are  many  other  feats  of  skill 
that  are  of  interest.  A  succession  of  good 
scores  are  evidence  of  sustained  power,  even 
though  none  of  them  be  the  best  the  archer 
has  ever  made,  excellent  shooting  may  be 
done  at  irregular  marks,  or  prowess  in  hunting 
game  with  the  bow  and  arrow  may  demand 

Such  deeds  will  be  mentioned  at  random, 
under    the    names    of    the    individuals    who 
accomplished  them. 
Captain  F.  S.  Barnes,  Forest  Grove,  Oregon. 

Shot   at   least   three   deer  and  a  mountain 
C.  C.  Beach,  Battle  Creek,  Mich. 

Best  30  arrows  at  60  yards 


"     30      "       "  50     " 


"     30      "        "  40     " 


Hypothetical  round  90-656 

George  Phillips  Bryant,  Melrose,  Mass. 

In  answer  to  a  letter  asking  for  his  best 
scores,  Mr.  Bryant  said:  "I  enclose  a  record 
of  what  I  consider  the  best  shooting  I  ever 
did.  York  Rounds  shot  consecutively,  July, 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds  133 

100  yards 

80  yards 

60  yards 


























My  bow  broke  in  the  last  end  of  the  last 
York,  which  settled  this  run  of  scores." 

Mr.  Gray,  who  saw  all  of  these  splendid 
York  Rounds  shot,  said  to  the  writer  that 
the  arrows  seemed  to  fly  down  the  range  as 
though  they  were  all  tied  to  one  invisible  wire. 

Best  24  arrows  at  60  yards 
"     30      "        "  60     " 


«     30      u        ,<  5Q      « 

"     30      "        "  40      " 


Hypothetical  round  90-668 

Frank  E.  Canfield,  Chicago. 

In  a  letter  to  the  writer,  December,  1910, 
Dr.  E.  B.  Weston  says,  "I  once  saw  my 
friend  Canfield  shoot  a  little  over  300  yards, 
using  a  56  pound  lemonwood  bow  and  flight 
arrows  of  his  own  make. 
Dr.  E.  I.  Cole,  Ossining,  New  York, 

30  arrows 

at  2o"yards 


6-  54 


6-  54 


6-  52 


6-  52 


6-  50 


134  American  Archery 

W.  J.  Compton,  Portland,  Oregon. 

In  a  letter  dated  November  5th,  1916, 
Dr.  Saxton  Pope  gives  the  following  account 
of  this  remarkable  man.  He  is  a  professional 
hunter  who  uses  a  bow  because  he  thinks  it 
is  more  sportsmanlike  than  using  a  rifle. 

"  Compton  wrote  out  for  me  just  what 
game  he  has  killed,  as  nearly  as  he  can 
remember.  He  began  shooting  the  bow  at  14 
years,  in  1877,  in  Nebraska  at  the  head  of  the 
Elkhorn  River.  The  Sioux  Indians  were  his 
teachers.  He  uses  the  Sioux  release,  a  tertiary 
type,  all  the  fingers  on  the  string,  below  the 
nock,  thumb  lightly  touching  nock,  a  very 
powerful  loose. 

He  killed  his  first  deer  with  a  bow  in 
September,  1877,  shooting  it  in  a  "  blow-out" 
at  10  yards  distance,  through  the  heart. 

Later  in  the  same  year  he  killed  a  fawn, 
with  three  arrows  and  much  chasing. 

During  the  next  few  years  he  killed  about 
20  deer  in  this  country,  within  a  radius  of 
100  miles.  Also  four  antelope,  one  cow  elk 
three  years  old  and  one  yearling. 

In  1880  he  shot  a  buffalo,  a  two  year  old. 
He  hit  him  about  the  middle  but  did  not 
finish  him,  the  Indians  did  this  with  guns. 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds  135 

This  was  between  Crow  Creek  and  the  Little 
Missouri,  almost  the  last  stand  of  the  bison. 

In  Wyoming,  in  1883,  he  killed  a  big  buck 
antelope  by  severing  his  spinal  cord  with  an 
arrow  at  about  50  yards. 

In  Big  Horn  Mountains,  in  1884,  he  shot, 
but  failed  to  kill  outright,  a  black  bear, 
chasing  him  for  almost  an  hour.  In  this 
place  he  also  shot  a  big  buck  through  the 
heart  at  82  paces.  He  also  made  another 
heart  shot  at  50  yards. 

In  the  Cascade  Mountains  of  Oregon  he 
killed  a  mountain  beaver,  a  very  rare  animal, 
never  known  to  be  shot  with  a  gun. 

Besides  these  he  has  killed  several  hundred 
rabbits,  many  quail,  a  few  ducks  on  the 
wing,  sage  hens,  prairie  chickens,  doves, 
grouse,  a  few  squirrels,  chipmunks,  ground- 
hogs, two  skunks  so  dead  they  had  no  time 
to  register  a  complaint,  four  coons,  two 
badgers  and  some  tame  cats. 

I  have  seen  him  kill  dozens  of  rabbits, 
small  birds,  wound  two  deer  and  kill  another, 
using  broad  heads  and  a  65  pound  bow.  He 
can  shoot  an  80  pound  bow. 

The  best  shot  I  ever  saw,  Compton  made 
at   this   deer.     We   started   him   and,    as  he 

136  American  Archery 

bounded  down  a  very  steep  hill  side,  at  about 
65  yards,  Compton  let  drive.  The  deer  was 
running  quartering  away  from,  us.  Just  as  it 
swerved  slightly  to  enter  the  brush,  say  at 
75  yards,  the  arrow  connected  with  him. 
Compton  released  at  65  and  hit  the  deer, 
which  was  not  going  at  full  speed,  at  about 
75  yards.  It  caught  him  in  the  short  ribs  on 
the  right  side,  and  ranged  forward,  making 
an  exit  back  of  the  opposite  shoulder,  sticking 
out  a  foot.  The  deer  dashed  into  the  under- 
growth, some  small  bak  or  laurel  bushes. 
As  it  did  so  it  snapped  off  the  arrow  shaft, 
leaving  only  ,the  feathers  visible  in  the  side. 
Compton  went  and  picked  up  the  shaft. 
On  its  point  were  blood,  green  food  and  lung 
tissue.  We  knew  we  had  him.  About  an 
hour  later  we  found  him  huddled  up  against 
some  small  madrone  trees,  200  yards  down 
the  canyon,  dead.  A  good  sized  forked  horn. 
Our  autopsy  showed  that  the  arrow  had 
penetrated  the  stomach,  diaphragm,  lung 
and  base  of  heart.  The  pericardial  and 
pleural  cavities  were  flooded  with  blood. 

This  was  a  beautiful  shot,  good  luck,  good 
archery,  and  good  judgment  of  distance." 

Arthur  Young 

Shoots  fish  in  California 

Dr.  Saxton  Pope 
and  first  buck  for   1917 

W.  J.  Compton  and   Arthur 
Young.     A  bird  apiece 

Dr.  Saxton  Pope 
and  his  composite  bow 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds 


Mrs.  John  Dunlap,  Jr.,  Wayne,  Pa. 

On  November  29th,  191 3,  shooting  the  100 
yard  distance  of  the  last  York  in  the  N.  A.  A. 
Mail  Match,  she  made  an  end  of  99773  5-35, 
probably  a  record  for  a  woman. 

Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer,  Wayne,  Pa. 

In  191 5,  shooting  the  American  Round 
twice  a  week  or  oftener  till  after  the  National 
Tournament,  had  every  score  above  500. 

In  September,  1917,  shot  eight  consecutive 
American  Rounds,  in  private  practice,  as 
follows : 

September    6 















1          ii 















18   » 





'          19 





The  above  rounds  were  made  with  a  yew- 
backed  yew  by  Barnes,  191 1,  five  feet  ten 
inches  long  and  weighing  48  pounds,  and 
McChesneyV.arrows,5  403 'grains. 

Best  30  arrows  at  60  yards 
"     30      "        "  50     " 
"     30      "        "  40     " 


Sept.  14  as  above. 
Sept.  11  as  above. 
Sept.  17  and  18  as  above 
and  at  Chicago  August  7, 

Hypothetical  round 


138  American  Archery 

Aug.  7th,  1915  6-  46  Sept.  17th,  1917  6-  46  Sept.  18th,  1917  6-  54 

6-46  6-50  6-48 

17  golds  6-46  6-50  19  golds  6-  46 

12  reds  6-52  6-  48     8  reds  6-  42 

1  blue  6-52  6-  48     3  blues  6-  52 

30-242  30-242  30-242 

The  first  ten  arrows  at  40  yards  on  Sept. 
1 8th  were  golds.  Made  11  successive  golds 
at  40  yards,  being  the  last  arrow  of  the  first 
end,  all  of  the  second  end  and  the  first  five 
of  the  third  end,  in  a  match  at  the  Cynwyd 
Club,  May,  1915.  Scored  by  Esther  M.  Weyl. 
6-46,  6-54,  6-50,  6-46,  6-44,  30-240.  18 
golds  in  all.    Made  with  Duff's  arrows. 

Best  American  Round  shot  in  a  match  was 
made  17th  September,  1916,  at  the  Cynwyd 
Club,  Cynwyd,  Pa.,  ancl  scored  by  Dr.  E.  F. 

30-196    30-216    30-228    90-640      In    this 
round  a  Barnes'  self  yew  (6  feet,  42  pounds) 
was  used  with  Duff's  arrows  (409  grains). 
Frank  C.  Havens,  Oakland,  California. 

Best  30  arrows  at  60  yards         30-202 

30  50  30-2I2 

"     30      "      "  40     "  30-246  (18  golds,  12  reds.) 

Hypothetical  score  90-660 

Dr.  Owen  L.  Hertig,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

This  extract  from  a  letter  to  the  writer, 
dated  March  20th,  19 12,  is  well  worth  pre- 
serving : 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds  139 

"As  a  boy,  from  the  age  of  twelve  until  I 
started  to  college,  I  was,  after  a  fashion,  a 
skillful  archer.  Shooting  home  made  weapons, 
unfeathered  hickory  arrows,  tipped  with  Nor- 
way iron  points,  using  primary  loose,  and 
placing  arrow  on  right  hand  side  of  bow,  I 
was  able  at  short  range,  to  do  some  very 
creditable  and,  I  may  say,  remarkable  work. 
Here  are  a  few  samples  which  my  memory 
holds  clearly  and  distinctly: 

Placing  10  consecutive  arrows  in  old- 
fashioned  oyster  can  at  20  yards,  that  is, 
hitting  a  space  4  by  6  inches. 

Shooting  through  an  inch  auger  hole  at 
18  feet  35  times  straight. 

Hitting  a  pie  pan  thrown  into  the  air  100 
times  straight  at  20  feet. 

Hitting  consistently  any  object  thrown 
into  the  air,  no  matter  how  small. 

Placing,  at  10  yards,  95%  of  arrows  in  a 
four  inch  circle. 

At  20  feet  shooting  tin  box  lid  3  inches  in 
diameter,  from  hand  of  boy  companion  and 
pinning  it  to  the  wall.  This  last  feat  I  did 
repeatedly  until  my  father  caught  me  at  it. 
The  boy,  A.  H.  Sayers,  now  a  prominent 
attorney  of  my  old  home  Waynesbury,  Pa., 

140  American  Archery 

was  the  instigator  of  the  thing  for  which  I 
was  punished." 

The  best  practice  shooting  he  has  done  with 
regular  methods  and  equipment  was  in 
October  and  November,  1913,  when,  in  54 
consecutive  rounds,  24  York,  18  American, 
and  12  Team  he  averaged  in  the  York  113- 
517,  in  the  American  88-532  and  in  the 
Team  93-527.  In  that  fall  he  won  the  York 
Round  in  the  series  of  10  mail  matches  con- 
ducted by  the  N.A.A.,  in  a  field  of  24.  He 
shot  in  8  matches  with  a  low  score  106-484, 
high  122-596  and  average  114-535.  In 
sending  his  last  mail  match  score,  in  Novem- 
ber, he  wrote,  "I  have  dropped  only  three 
arrows  out  of  350  at  60  yards.  In  the  old 
English  round  of  144  arrows  at  60  yards  I 
made  143-867.  The  English  record  is  142- 
840,  made  by  the  Rev.  Rimington." 

Z.  E.  Jackson,  Atchison,  Kansas.  He  has 
done  a  great  deal  of  hunting,  especially  of 
small  animals  and  birds.  While  seated  in  a 
canoe,  in  191 1,  on  a  lake  in  British  Columbia, 
he  shot  and  killed  a  deer  at  60  yards  distance, 
the  arrow  passing  through  both  shoulders  an 
inch  in  front  of  the  heart.  (Thompson, 
Forest  Sif  Stream,  March,  1915.) 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds  141 

Louis     W.     Maxson,     Washington,     D.  C. 


At  Washington  Grove,  Maryland,  on  July 
nth,  1890,  before  a  large  number  of  spectators, 
Mr.  Maxson  shot  three  exhibition  rounds 
without  stopping,  which,  as  a  whole,  have 
never  been  beaten. 
















90-630        90-648        90-666 

Euclid  D.  Miller,   Tennessee. 

Besides  having  killed  "most  every  kind  of 
game  in  this  country,"  (see  Forest  IS  Stream, 
October  25th,  1913),  he  adopted  the  Y-shaped 
pile  from  the  Japanese  and  used  it  to  de- 
capitate snakes. 
F.  E.  Perry,  Battle  Creek,  Michigan. 

30  arrows  at  30  yards         30-260,  with  16  successive  golds. 

Dr.  Saxton  T.  Pope,  San  Francisco,  CaL 

"Strong  of  arm  was  Hiawatha; 
He  could  shoot  ten  arrows  upward, 
Shoot  them  with  such  strength  and  swiftness, 
That  the  tenth  had  left  the  bow-string 
Ere  the  first  to  earth  had  fallen." 

(Hiawatha  and  Mudjekeewis,  Lines  11— 15.) 

In  the  past  it  has  been  supposed  by  archers 
who  have  tried  to  accomplish  this  feat  that 

142  American  Archery 

it  was  possible  only  in  the  imagination  of 
the  poet.  In  recent  times,  however,  Dr. 
Pope  seems  to  have  brought  it  so  near  fulfill- 
ment that  it  is  no  longer  scoffed  at.  In 
a  letter  dated  November  5th,  1916,  he  writes: 

"I  made  up  seven  shafts  with  V-nocks 
and  grooved  so  I  could  catch  them  quickly 
and  feel  the  right  side.  Then  I  practiced  15 
minutes  every  day  for  one  week;  just  nocking 
and  releasing.  Today  I  tried  myself  out  and 
three  times  in  succession  I  kept  seven  arrows 
in  the  air  at  once.  Even  with  this  I  had 
time  to  fumble  one  or  two  and  still  had  sixty 
feet  leeway  on  the  last  arrow.  With  diligence 
I  could  easily  shoot  eight  arrows.  The  first 
arrow  I  used  was  a  flight  arrow.  It  required 
eight  seconds  to  complete  its  course,  almost 

As  other  archers  have  been  able  to  keep 
only  three  arrows  in  the  air  at  once,  Pope's 
explanation  of  his  method  will  interest  them. 

"By  holding  the  arrows  on  the  right  side 
of  the  bow,  drawing  one  after  another  over 
the  thumb,  using  a  release  of  my  own  inven- 
tion, where  the  thumb  and  first  finger  grasp 
the  arrow  yet  stay  on  the  right  of  the  string, 
assisted  by  the  other  fingers,   and  shooting 

Dr.  Pope's  left  hand,  in  keeping  seven  arrows  in  the  air  at  once. 

Dr.  Pope's  right  hand,  in  keeping  seven  arrows  in  the  air  at  once. 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds  143 

the  first  arrow  as  usual,  I  get  away  with  this 
feat  of  dexterity,  if  not  utility." 

If  any  man  can  equal  Hiawatha  it  ought 
to  be  Pope,  as  he  is  a  prestidigitator  of  the 
greatest  skill,  wonderfully  quick  of  hand. 

The  following  quotation  from  an  article 
called  "What  a  Good  Bow  Has  Done  and 
Will  Do,"  by  Will  H.  Thompson,  in  Forest  fcf 
Stream  for  March,  191 5,  gives  an  idea  of  the 
difficulty  of  Pope's  accomplishment.  Mr. 
Thompson  is  the  dean  of  American  archers 
and,  as  he  says  himself,  speaks  ex  cathedra. 

"No  man  of  any  age,  race,  time  or  with  a 
record  for  previous  condition  of  servitude, 
ever  could  perform  or  ever  has  performed 
the  feat  of  shooting  'so  far  and  so  fast  as  to 
have  six  arrows  in  the  air  at  once.'  Seriously, 
after  more  than  fifty  years  of  the  bow,  and 
much  experimentation,  I  have  never  been 
able  to  keep  three  arrows  in  the  air  at  one 
time  but  have  come  so  near  it  that  I  feel 
sure  it  might  be  done.  I  feel  equally  sure 
that  no  man  ever  has,  ever  will,  or  now  can, 
keep  four  in  the  air  at  one  time.  A  very 
slight  increase  of  speed  might  be  secured  by 
having  large  open  nocks  in  the  arrows,  so 
that  one  could  quickly  feel  the  arrow  on  to 

144  American  Archery 

the  string,  but  the  gain  would  not  be  sufficient 
to  get  an  additional  arrow  (over  three)  into 
the  air." 

Under  the  tutelage  of  Ishi  and  Compton, 
Dr.   Pope  has  become  a  very  good  hunter, 
having  killed  a  deer  and  a  great  many  small 
Professor   E.  J.   Rendtorff,   Lake  Forest, 


Without  doubt  Prof.  Rendtorff  is  one  of 
the  greatest  archers  the  world  has  ever  seen 
He  is  the  only  American  in  the  class  of 
Horace  Ford.  On  his  private  range  and  on 
the  grounds  of  the  Chicago  Archery  Associa- 
tion his  shooting  has  been  witnessed  by  a 
great  many  people  who  were  thoroughly 
qualified  to  pass  judgment  and  they  unan- 
imously say  that  his  skill  is  .fully  as  great 
as  his  published  scores  would  indicate.  Un- 
fortunately he  has  been  able  to  appear  in 
only  one  open  contest,  the  Pre-Olympic 
Carnival  at  Grant  Park,  Chicago,  July  3rd, 
4th  and  5th,  191 3.  On  that  occasion  the 
wind  was  so  high  that  it  blew  up  blinding 
clouds  of  dust  and  the  targets  had  to  be  firmly 
moored  with  guy  ropes.  Under  such  condi- 
tions   his    scores,    which    were    recorded    by 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds 


Homer    S.   Taylor,    are    remarkable.     They 


Double  York 


Double  American 

29-169  30-212 

30-160  30-194 





89-  599 

90-  570 





24-144    94-562 

The  score  by  ends  of  his  record  breaking 
American  Round  are  of  interest  to  everybody. 
They  are: 

60  yards 
6-  44 
6-  44 
6-  44 
6-  46 
6-  46 

50  yards 
6-  46 
6-  50 
6-  40 
6-  40 
6-  52 

40  yards 
6-  46 
6-  48 
6-  50 
6-  44 
6-  42 

30-224      30-228        30-230        90-682 

In  a  letter  to  Forest  Ef?  Stream  he  says: 
"I  had  distinctly  seen  no  point  of  aim  at  60 
yards,  but  judged  its  location  subconsciously. 
At  50  yards  a  small  space  of  bare  ground 
helped  me,  while  at  40  yards  a  darker  patch 
of  grass  proved  of  assistance.  In  every  case 
I  had  my  direct  vision  on  the  gold  and  the 
indirect  or  secondary  vision  on  the  point  of 
aim,  which  I  need  for  elevation  purposes 
only  and  not  for  lateral  alignment." 

146  American  Archery 

Dr.  Henry  B.  Richardson,  Boston,  Mass. 

Dr.  Richardson  is  the  only  American  archer, 
of  any  consequence,  who  has  ever  competed 
in  the  great  matches  of  England.  It  is 
therefore  gratifying  to  his  countrymen  to 
know  that  he  not  only  held  his  own,  in  every 
event,  with  the  best  of  his  opponents  but 
even,  in  the  one  match  whose  records  went 
back  almost  to  the  time  when  archery  was  the 
national  sport, — namely,  the  Scorton  Arrow 
contest  which  began  in  1673, — made  the 
best  score  ever  recorded. 

He  went  abroad  in  the  summer  of  1908, 
at  the  age  of  19,  while  he  was  champion 
of  the  United  States.  The  following  records 
of  his  performances  were  taken  from  "The 
Field,"  by  Dr.  Weston. 

Royal  Toxophilite  Society- 
Regent's  Park,  July  9th 
H.  B.  Richardson 
H.  P.  Nesham 

Olympic  Games,  July  17-18 
W.  Dod 
Richardson  60-248     67-291     43-221       170-760 

On  the  third  day  of  the  tournament  a 
handicap  York  was  shot  in  which  Richardson, 
who  was  scratch,  made  the  highest  mark  of 

Single  York  Round 


36-148     23-121 
26-  88    22-112 



71-299    44-224 
72-300    44-218 


Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds  147 

105-453.    Dod  won  the  match  with  82  given, 
his  net  being  99-453. 

Grand  National.    Trinity  College  Cricket  Ground,  Oxford,  July  22, 
23  and  24 

Double  York  Round 

Richardson  88-362     75-335     38-174       201-871 

Brooks-King  77-3i9     72-342    43-209       192-870 

Dod,  who  won  the  Olympic  Games,  was  seventh. 

After  the  shooting  was  all  over  and  every- 
body thought  Richardson  had  won,  an  old 
rule  was  dug  up  which  said  that  the  cham- 
pionship could  be  won  only  by  a  native  of  the 
British  Isles.  The  match  was  therefore  given 
to  Brooks-King. 

Antient  Scorton  Arrow.     235th  Annual  Com- 
petition.    July  2Qth. 

This  competition  is  at  100  yards,  two  arrows 
being  shot  at  an  end.  No  specified  number  of 
arrows  are  shot,  but  the  shooting  takes  two 
hours  in  the  morning  and  two  in  the  after- 
noon.   At  this  meeting  178  arrows  were  shot. 

The  Field  says:  "Mr.  Richardson  shot  in 
great  form,  and  made  the  highest  score,  in 
hits  and  score,  that  has  ever  been  recorded." 



Golds  9 

C.  H.  Coates 


"      5 

T.  T.  S.  Metcalfe 


"     4 

148  American  Archery 

Grand-Western.    Sherbourne, 

August  12,  13  and  14. 

Double  York  Round 



T.  Robinson 




Mid-Herefordshire  Archery  Society.     August  18th. 

(96  arrows  at  80  yards  and  48  at  60  yards) 




78-357                 • 



Herefordshire  York  Round  Club.    August  19th. 

Single  York  Round 





Grand  Northern.    August  26, 

27  and  28. 

Double  York  Round 






149-61 1 

Homer  S.  Taylor,  Greenfield,  Mass.    Until 

lately  of  Chicago. 

Mr.  Taylor  was  present  at  the  first  National 
Tournament  in  1879,  though  only  as  a  specta- 
tor. The  next  year  he  began  competitive 
shooting  and  from  then  till  the  present  time, 
with  a  lapse  of  a  few  years  in  the  late  '80s, 
he  has  always  been  one  of  the  best  shots  in 
the  country.  Before  the  National  Tourna- 
ment last  year  (1916)  he  had  had  almost  no 
practice  yet  he  won  third  place.  The  longer 
the  shooting  lasted  the  better  he  got.  On 
the  last  day,  shooting  at  a  life  sized  silhouette 

Best  Scores  of  All  Kinds  149 

of  a  duck  at  40  yards  he  put  five  arrows  out 
of  six  in  a  space  the  size  of  a  man's  hand. 
It  is  an  inspiration  to  every  archer  to  see  a 
man  who  is  no  longer  young  doing  such  splen- 
did work. 

From  among  many  excellent  performances 
the  following  twelve  York  Rounds,  shot  in 
succession,  may  be  taken  as  a  sample  of  his 
steadiness,  although  in  191 1  his  scores,  which 
are  not  at  hand,  were  probably  even  better. 

1908                 100  yards 

80  yards 

60  yards 


Aug.  21               46-216 




Aug.  28                53-225 




Aug.  29               52-212 



1 16-5 14 

Sept.    7                51-235 




Sept.    7                39-137 




Sept.  20               49-213 



1 1 1-559 

Sept.  26                50-220 



1 1 i-55 1 

Sept.  27                39-165 


22-  92 


Oct.     3                52-228 




Oct.     4               49-207 




Oct.     4                53-207 


22-  86 


Muarice  Thompson,  Crawfordsville, 



Best  24  arrows  at  60  yards 


"     30      "        "  60     " 


"     30      "        "  40     " 


(18  golds,  n 

reds,  1  blue) 

In  October,  1878,  he  broke  35  out  of  50 
glass  balls  thrown  into  the  air  at  10  yards. 
(Reported  in  Chicago  Field  of  that  month.) 

He  killed  innumerable  birds  and  animals, 
as  related  in  "  The  Witchery  of  Archery"  an 

150  American  Archery 

many  other  writings.     Every  archer  should 

read  his  stories. 

Will  H.  Thompson,  Seattle,  Washington. 

Brother  of  Maurice  Thompson  and  his 
companion  on  his  hunting  trips.  Killed  all 
kinds  of  birds  and  animals.  Both  men  were 
invincible  in  off-hand  shooting. 

Best  30  arrows  at  60  yards  30-198 

"     30      "        "  50     "  30-204 

"     30      "        "  40     "  30-236 

Best  30  arrows  at  20  yards         30-268  (29  golds,  1  red) 

Colonel    Robert    Williams,    Washington, 

D.  C.     (Deceased.) 

Up  to  1888  had  made  13  Double  York 
Rounds  of  over  1000.  Eleven  were  in  1883. 
Arthur  Young,  San  Francisco. 

Pope  wrote:  "Young  killed  17  ground 
squirrels  in  one  afternoon  with  the  bow,  at 
distances  of  from  10  to  40  yards.  Five  of 
these  he  killed  with  five  successive  arrows." 

"He  shot  15  carp,  one  morning,  in  a  back- 
water of  the  Tuolumne  River,  a  feat  not 
known   to   have   been   equalled   by   a   white 



In   the   Ohio   State  Archery  Association's 
Annual    Tournament    in    1883,    the    Men's 

Best  Sports  of  All  Kinds  151 

Team  of  the  Highland  Archers,  of  Wyoming, 
Ohio,  made  the  highest  score  ever  recorded 
in  this  country. 

90  arrows  at  60  yards 
A.  W.  Houston  94-  604 

W.  A.  Clark  95-  597 

H.  W.  Pollock  88-  478 

C.  S.  Woodruff  82-  444 


A  very  good  practice  score  was  made  by 
the  Pittsburgh  Archers  in  May,  1914. 

Holmes  92-  528 

Sorber  91-  505 

Hertig  91-  457 

Jiles  89-  423 


It  is  a  pity  that  they  did  not  make  one 
point  more  to  commemorate  the  year! 

The  following  is  translated  from  "Le  Tir  a 
l'Arc;"  "Finally,  we  mention  for  the  sceptics 
who  deny  the  possibility  of  shooting  on  the 
wing  with  the  bow,  that  Maurice  Thompson 
made  the  American  record  for  it  in  1894. 
He  has,  in  fact,  in  a  public  tournament, 
broken  38  glass  balls,  and  in  a  private  match 
48,  out  of  50  thrown  into  the  air  at  a  distance 
of  about  12  metres." 

1 52  American  Archery 


The  Reddendo  Arrows 

By  J.  Mark  Mauser 

IN  19 14  Mr.  James  Duff,  of  the  Scottish- 
American  Archers  of  Jersey  City,  made  a 
trophy  to  be  competed  for  by  the  various 
archery  clubs,  with  the  idea  of  bringing 
them  into  more  frequent  contact.  It  con- 
sists of  a  pair  of  arrows,  beautifully  inlaid 
with  ebony,  feathered  with  the  finest  of 
white  goose  feathers,  tipped  with  barbed 
bronze  points  and  laid  parallel  upon  a  finely 
polished  oak  board. 

These  handsome  shafts  are  copied  from  the 
arrows  which  the  Royal  Company  of  Archers, 
the  King's  bodyguard  for  Scotland,  present 
to  the  monarch  on  his  formal  visits  to  that 
country,  a  feu-duty,  or  "  Reddendo,"  by  virtue 
of  which  they  have  held  their  charter  since  1703 . 

Duff's  "  Reddendo  Arrows"  are  shot  for 
under  the  following  conditions: 

A  challenge  must  be  given  at  least  thirty  days  before  the  match. 
The  match  may  be  the  American  Round,  the  Team  Round  or  the 
York  Round,  but  the  round  selected  must  be  agreeable  to  both,  or 
all,  sides. 

The  Reddendo  Arrows 


There  is  no  maximum  limit  to  the  number  of  archers  on  a 
team,  but  not  less  than  four  may  compete.  One  team  may  contain 
more  archers  than  the  other;  in  which  case  the  best  scores  of  the  larger 
side  shall  be  counted,  equal  to  the  number  of  those  of  the  smaller 

The  first  challenge  was  sent  by  the  Scottish- 
American  Archers  to  the  Wayne  Archers,  the 
match  taking  place  at  Jersey  City  on  June 
20th,  1 9 14,  with  the  following  scores: 

rne  Archers 



Dr.  R.  P.  Elmer 

90-  530 

R.  McNeil 

69-  323 

J.  M.  Mauser 

77-  405 

F.  N.  Clay 

58-  306 

A.  C.  Hale 

70-  376 

J.  McCrae 

59-  283 

G.  W.  Watt 

47-  229 

J.  Duff 

61-  269 

E.  E.  Trout 

42-  212 

G.  Milne 

56-  256 

C.  L.  Lehman 

49-  181 

J.  Cleland 

60-  244 



A  challenge  from  the  newly  formed  Walden 
Archers,  of  the  Lehigh  Valley,  was  almost 
immediately  sent  to  the  Wayne  club  and 
accepted,  with  this  result: 

August  1st,  1914 
Wayne,  Pa. 

Wayne  Archers 

Walden  Archers 

Dr.  Elmer 
T.  T.  Hare 
A.  C.  Hale 
E.  E.  Trout 

90-  560 

87-  453 
66-  304 
45"  211 

J.  M.  Mauser 
J.  M.  Ramsey 
H.  J.  Lentz 

90-  522 
51-  233 
37"  183 
27-  105 




American  Archery 

The  Walden  Archers,  although  defeated, 
continued  to  put  in  a  lot  of  practice  and 
again  challenged  the  Wayne  club,  this  time 
with  more  success. 

Sept.  26th,  1914 

Laurys  Station,  Pa. 

Walden  Archers 

Wayne  Archers 

J.  M.  Mauser 

85-  485 

Dr.  Elmer 



G.  Mauser 

86-  474 

A.  C.  Hale 



J.  M.  Ramsey 

65-  295 

E.  E.  Trout 



H.  J.  Lerch 

66-  294 

C.  L.  Lehman 






The    next    match,    on    a    challenge    from 
Wayne,  ended  the  season. 

Oct.  24th,  1914 


Walden  Archers 

Wayne  Archers 

J.  M.  Mauser 

86-  500 

Dr.  Elmer 

90-  584 

G.  Mauser 

86-  436 

E.  E.  Trout 

75-  369 

H.  J.  Lerch 

73-  293 

A.  C.  Hale 

73"  347 

H.  J.  Lentz 

66-  290 

F.  L.  Bodine 

57-  253 

J.  M.  Ramsey 

57"  259 

C.  L.  Lehman 

44-  156 



Next  year  the  Jersey  Scotchmen  issued  a 
challenge  to  the  Walden  Archers  and  once 
again  the  Lehigh  men  were  victorious. 

The  Reddendo  Arrows  155 

Oct.  23rd,  1915 

Jersey  City 

Walden  Archers 


H.  J.  Lentz 

84-  480        J.  Duff 

80-  408 

J.  M.  Mauser 

82-  422        J.  McCrae 

77-  38s 

H.  J.  Lerch 

80-  366        G.  Milne 

72-  340 

G.  Mauser 

68-  322        Rev.  E.  I.  Cole 

67-  321 

314-1590  296-1454 

In  1916  the  Jersey  club  turned  the  tables 
on  the  Walden  Archers  in  a  match  held  at 
Sheepshead  Bay,  N.  Y.,  in  connection  with 
the  Open  Championship  Archery  Tourna- 

May  24th,  1916 

Sheepshead  Bay,  N.  Y. 

Scottish-Americans  Walden  Archers 

J.  Duff  79-  413  J.  M.  Mauser              86-  484 

J.  M.  Cleland  60-316  H.  J.  Lerch                  63-  281 

J.  McCrae  63-  309  H.  J.  Lentz                  62-  240 

G.  Milne  66-  306  G.  Mauser                   43-  H3 

238-1344  254-1178 

This  trophy  has  added  much  to  the  interest 
in  archery  in  the  Middle  Eastern  States,  for 
instance  the  idea  of  winning  it  was  the  direct 
means  of  creating  the  well  known  Walden 
Archers,  of  Laurys  Station.  As  a  rule  a 
match  has  formed  a  nucleus  for  a  much 
larger  contest  at  the  same  time,  many  other 
archers,  both  men  and  women,  participating 
in  the  shooting  and  sociability.  It  is  to  be 
hoped  that  challenges  will  soon  be  issued  by 
Boston,  Chicago,  Pittsburgh  and  other  clubs. 

156  American  Archery 

Scoring  by  "  Points" 
By  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 

ARCHERS  of  the  future  may  wonder 
what  is  meant  when  they  read,  in  a 
list  of  winners,  the  expression,  "A  had  the 
best  score  but  B  won  on  points." 

The  fact  is  that  when  the  National  Archery 
Association  was  organized  it  was  thought 
best  to  conform  the  methods  of  shooting 
and  scoring  with  those  in  use  in  England, 
partly  for  the  reason  that  the  English  were 
supposed  to  have  found  out  from  experience 
what  the  best  things  were  and  partly  so  that 
it  would  be  more  easy  to  compare  the  per- 
formances of  the  archers  on  both  sides  of  the 

For  some  unknown  reason  the  English 
were  in  the  habit  of  keeping  what  might  be 
called  a  score  of  the  score.  In  other  words, 
after  adding  up  the  actual  values  of  the  hits 
they  gave  to  the  figures  a  secondary  or 
arbitrary  value  by  awarding  "  points"  on  a 
purely  factitious  basis  and  thereby  deciding 

Scoring  by  "Points"  157 

the  outcome  of  the  match.  The  specific 
meaning  of  this  can  be  understood  by  study- 
ing the  following  tables,  which  show  how  the 
"points"  for  the  different  events,  were 

York  Round  National  Round 

Greatest  Total  Score     2  points         Greatest  Total  Score     2  points 

"     Hits       2       " 

"  100  yard  Score  1  point 

"  "      "    Hits     1 

"  80    "     Score  1 

"  "  "  Hits  1 
11  60  "  Score  1 
"       "      "    Hits     1 

"       Hits  2      " 

60  yard  Score  1  point 

"      "    Hits  1       " 

50     "     Score  1       " 

**      "     Hits  1       " 

The  American  and  Columbia  Rounds  were 
decided  in  a  similar  manner. 

The  second  National  Tournament,  at 
Buffalo,  was  awarded  on  score,  not  on  points, 
but  in  the  following  year  the  authorities 
decided  to  use  the  point  system  again  and 
then  for  thirty  years  it  remained,  to  be  a 
bone  of  contention  and  a  source  of  ill  feeling 
at  many  a  tournament. 

The  unfairness  of  the  method  lay  in  the 
fact  that  it  permitted  an  outsider  to  step  in 
and  rob  the  man  who  had  done  the  best 
shooting  of  some  of  his  points.  While  a  great 
number  of  cases  might  be  cited  we  will  take 

158  American  Archery 

one  that  occurred  in  the  Eastern  Archery 
Association  in  1914  and  which  may  be  found 
on  page  7.  Or  again,  in  the  National  Tourna- 
ment of  191 3  G.  P.  Bryant  was  nosed  out 
of  first  place  by  Dr.  J.  W.  Doughty  in  the 
following  manner: 



Total  Score 

832  2  points 

802  0  points 

Total  Hits 

176  0       " 

178  2       " 

Score  at  ioo 

279  0       " 

282  1 

Hits    at  100 

65  0       " 

66  1  point 

Score  at    80 

315  1  point 

254  0       " 

Hits    at     80 

67  1       " 

66  0       " 

Score  at    60 

238  0       " 

266  1       " 

Hits    at    60 

440       «« 

46  0       " 

4  6 

This  example  is  not  like  that  taken  from 
the  Eastern  A.  A.  because  here  no  third  party 
intervened.  Still,  the  fact  remained  that  the 
man  whose  arrows  had  totalled  up  the  highest 
figure  did  not  win  the  match. 

The  only  good  argument  for  the  point 
system  was  that  at  the  ioo  yard  range  it 
required  skill  to  hit  the  target  at  all,  for 
instance  eight  hits  in  the  white,  out  of  eight 
arrows,  would  show  more  skill  than  one  hit 
in  the  gold  with  seven  misses,  and  that  the 
point  system,  by  giving  credit  for  the  number 
of  hits,  recognized  that  fact.    As  this  reasoning 

Scoring  by  "Points"  159 

could  not  be  held  by  anyone  to  apply  to  the 
American  and  Columbia  Rounds  the  point 
system  was  abolished  for  them  in  1913,  two 
years  before  it  was  done  away  with  alto- 
gether. It  was  not  till  191 5  that  the  opinion 
became  universal  that  the  system  was  cumber- 
some, archaic  and  disagreeable.  When  the 
new  constitution  was  adopted  at  the  Annual 
Business  Meeting  of  that  year  the  opportun- 
ity was  taken  to  adopt  the  present  method 
which  certainly  seems,  in  its  practical  working, 
to  be  the  simplest  and  best. 

160  American  Archery 


Flight  Shooting 

By  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 

TO  THOSE  who  do  not  object  to  walking^ 
no  branch  of  archery  is  more  fascinating 
than  flight-shooting.  There  is  an  exhilaration 
about  it  which  is  due  partly  to  the  greater 
physical  effort  required  and  partly  to  the 
esthetic  enjoyment  of  the  free  flight  of  the 
shaft,  which  looks  as  though  it  would  pierce 
the  very  clouds.  Those  archers  who  make 
their  own  tackle  are  apt  to  practice  flight- 
shooting,  because  the  problems  arising  in 
connection  with  it  are  almost  impossible  to 
solve  and  afford  unending  opportunity  for 
experimentation  in  manufacturing  flight  bows 
and  flight  arrows.  Few  men  are  agreed  on 
what  is  the  best  equipment,  for  instance  one 
will  claim  that  long  arrows  are  the  best,  while 
another  will  argue  for  short  ones  and  yet, 
when  put  to  the  practical  test  of  shooting, 
both  will  get  good  results.  We  can  only  tell 
what  our  experience  has  found  to  be  of 
value,   hoping  that  others   will   continue   to 

Flight  Shooting  161 

get  pleasure  and  profit  by  trying  out  their 
original  ideas. 


The  shorter  the  bow  the  farther  it  will 
cast.  This  is  because  a  short  bow  will  resume 
its  original  shape  more  quickly  from  a  full 
draw  than  will  a  long  weapon.  The  only 
reason  for  bows  being  as  long  as  they  usually 
are  is  the  prevention  of  breaking.  The 
Turkish  and  Persian  bows  are  only  about  30 
inches  long  but  they  will  shoot  farther  than 
any  other  bows  in  the  world.  In  June,  191 3, 
Ingo  Simon,  an  Englishman,  at  Le  Touquet, 
France,  shot  459  yards  and  8  inches  with  a 
Turkish  bow  said  to  be  200  years  old.  Still 
longer  shots  are  probably  authentic.  In  1795, 
Mahmoud  EfTendi,  Secretary  of  the  Turkish 
Embassy  at  London,  sent  home  for  a  bow, 
in  order  to  show  the  superiority  of  the  weapons 
of  his  country  over  those  of  England,  and,  in 
a  carefully  witnessed  trial,  made  a  shot  of 
482  yards. 

The  Turkish  bows  can  be  so  short  because 
they  are  not  made  of  wood  only,  but  are  com- 
posite bows  with  a  belly  of  horn  and  a  back 
of  sinew  laid  on  a  thin,  flat  piece  of  wood 
which  forms  a  central  core. 

1 62  American  Archery 

The  fact  that  short  bows  of  the  English 
pattern  will  cast  far  is  borne  out  by  experience. 
For  instance,  Mr.  Duff  made  a  bow,  in  1910, 
of  lemonwood  back  and  washaba  belly,  which 
was  only  five  feet  long  and  weighed  87  pounds 
for  a  21  inch  draw.  Three  trial  shots  gave 
241^  yards  for  the  first  two  arrows,  which 
landed  together,  and  276  yards  9  inches 
for  the  third.  Mr.  Duff  was  certain  that  the 
bow  was  good  for  many  yards  more  than  this, 
if  he  could  have  practiced  with  it  but,  on  the 
fourth  draw,  the  lemonwood  back  pulled 
apart,  breaking  the  bow.  If  the  back  had 
been  hickory,  with  its  much  greater  tensile 
strength,  the  catastrophe  might  not  have 
occurred.  It  seems  probable  that  if  one 
could  so  combine  his  materials  as  to  make 
a  five  foot  bow,  with  hickory  back  and  hard 
wood  belly,  drawing  90  pounds  for  21  inches 
and  able  to  stand  a  still  further  draw  to  25 
inches,  he  would  have  a  weapon  that  would 
do  all  that  could  be  expected  of  a  bow  of  the 
English  type.  For  such  a  bow  small  blocks 
glued  to  the  belly  and  nocked  for  the  string 
are  better  than  horns. 

Although  the  bow  just  described  represents 
the  choice  of  the  writer,  it  must  be  stated 

Flight  Shooting  163 

that  the  majority  of  authorities  flatly  deny 
that  the  use  of  such  a  strong  weapon  is  advis- 
able. In  support  of  their  view  many  cases 
like  the  following  can  be  cited. 

Horace  Ford  made  his  best  shot  of  308 
yards  with  a  68  pound  yew. 

Mr.  Muir,  of  Edinburgh,  although  a  very 
skillful  archer  and  a  man  of  great  strength, 
found  that  he  could  shoot  farther  with  a  60 
pound  bow  than  with  a  heavier  one. 

Mr.  Troward,  of  England,  in  1798,  made 
340  yards  up  and  down  wind  with  a  self-bow 
pulling  63  pounds  and  29  inch  flight  arrows. 
The  bows  used  in  all  of  these  shots  were 
presumably  six  feet  long. 

On  the  other  hand  Sir  Ralph  P.  Galway,  in 
1905,  in  the  presence  of  James  Duff,  shot 
376  yards  with  a  Turkish  bow  weighing  100 
pounds  and  the  bow  used  by  Ingo  Simon  in 
his  record  breaking  shot  weighed  80  pounds. 

Reflexion  adds  to  the  cast  of  a  bow.  The 
Turkish  bows  are  reflexed  to  such  an  extreme 
degree  that,  when  unstrung,  they  vary  in 
form  from  a  curve  like  the  letter  C  to  the 
shape  of  a  pretzel.  The  only  Turkish  bows 
known  to  be  in  this  country  are  in  museums 
and  there  one  usually  sees   them  with   the 

164  American  Archery 

string  put  on  while  they  are  still  unbent. 
This  is  because  it  seems  incredible  to  the 
curators  that  they  could  possibly  be  bent 
around  as  far  as  they  should  be  in  order  to 
be  strung,  even  though  the  situation  of  the 
nocks  would  clearly  indicate  such  a  fact  to 
an  archer.  Such  very  great  reflexion  is  only 
possible  in  a  bow  that  is  made  of  much  more 
elastic  materials  than  wood  alone,  and  also 
in  a  bow  that  is  broad  and  flat,  because  a  half 
round  bow,  like  those  of  the  English  would 
have  a  strong  tendency  to  side  twist  if  drawn 
out  of  line.  However,  a  long  bow  reflected 
to  a  moderate  angle  is  somewhat  quickened 
thereby,  because  the  fibres  of  the  wood  are 
already  in  a  state  of  greater  tension,  and 
therefore  greater  resiliency,  before  the  draw 
is  begun. 


The  success  of  a  flight  shot  depends  more 
on  the  arrow  than  on  the  bow. 

The  Turks  use  a  21  inch  arrow  which  is 
drawn  back  to  25  inches.  This  extra  distance 
is  made  possible  by  the  use  of  a  bone  guide 
fastened  to  the  wrist,  so  that  the  arrow  can 
be  drawn  behind  the  bow.  A  similar  contriv- 
ance is   necessary  for  the  short  bow  which 

Flight  Shooting  165 

the  writer  has  advocated  above,  if  a  short 
arrow  is  to  be  used  for  a  long  draw.  It  is 
objected  that  if  the  idea  of  a  short  shaft  and 
long  guide  were  carried  to  its  logical  extreme 
the  result  would  be  a  crossbow.  This,  how- 
ever, is  only  a  theoretical  objection,  for 
experimentation  will  soon  convince  one  that 
there  is  a  practical  limit  in  dimensions 
beyond  which  it  is  not  advantageous  to  go, 
and  that  this  limit  is  placed  where  the 
essential  features  of  long  bow  shooting  are  in 
no  sense  lost.  Ingo  Simon  and  Sir  Ralph 
Galway  used  guides  fastened  to  the  wrist 
in  the  Turkish  fash'on.  The  writer  uses  one 
made  of  bone  lyi  inches  wide  and  6  inches 
long,  which  is  wired  to  the  bow  at  the  arrow- 

The  arrow  with  which  the  writer  won  the 
Flight  Shoot  at  the  National  Tournament  in 
191 1  was  an  ordinary  Whitman  target  arrow, 
weighing  about  300  grains,  with  the  feathers 
cut  down  to  mere  nubbins.  The  bow  was 
a  65  pound  lemonwood,  5  feet  8  inches  long, 
fitted  with  the  guide  just  mentioned.  On 
that  occasion  Mr.  Homer  Bishop  had  three 
barrelled  flight  arrows,  one  of  which  was 
made   hollow,    to   obtain    light   weight   with 

1 66  American  Archery 

stiffness.  They  were  tried  by  the  writer  with 
the  same  bow  but  would  not  fly  nearly  so 
far,  possibly  because  they  had  the  ordinary 
balloon  feathers  of  target  arrows. 

The  arrows  with  which  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Bryant,  Mrs.  Frentz  and  Mr.  Jiles  have  won 
the  flight  shoot  in  recent  years  have  all  been 
similar.  They  have  been  about  28  or  29 
inches  long,  weighing  about  250  grains,  some- 
what barrelled,  except  in  the  case  of  bamboo, 
in  order  to  have  enough  spine,  with  the  center 
of  gravity  near  the  center  of  the  shaft,  with 
a  small  steel  pile  and  with  two  little  feathers 
about  y^  inch  long  and  y±  inch  high.  Mrs. 
Frentz's  was  scraped  down  from  a  Japanese 
arrow  of  reed.  The  others  were  bamboo  or 
footed  spruce. 

Three  flight  arrows  that  Aldred,  of  England, 
made  for  the  writer  were  29  inches  over  all, 
weighed  298  grains,  were  barrelled  and  footed 
with  lance.  The  greatest  diameter  was  ex- 
actly A  inch.  The  piles  were  yg  x  % 
inch.  There  were  three  triangular  feathers, 
each  2$/i  inches  long  and  TV  inch  high. 
When  one  of  these  was  scraped  down  to  260 
grains  it  still  seemed  to  be  stiff  enough  but  it 
would  not  fly  as  far  as  it  had  before,  nor 

Flight  Shooting  167 

as  far  as  its  unaltered  fellows.  In  fact  it  is 
not  always  the  lightest  arrow  that  flies 
farthest,  even  though  it  have  a  good  spine. 
The  only  sure  test  is  in  the  shooting. 

A  very  important  influence  on  the  carry  of  a 
flight  arrow  is  exerted  by  the  feathers.  When 
one  considers  that  the  chief  obstacle  to  a 
speeding  arrow  is  the  resistance  of  the  air, 
it  is  obvious  that  the  feathers  should  offer 
as  little  surface  as  is  compatible  with  the 
maintenance  of  a  straight  flight.  As  has 
been  said,  American  archers  use  two  very 
tiny  vanes.  Aldred  favors  three  trimmed 
turkey  feathers  of  the  dimensions  given 
above.  The  ancient  Turkish  arrows  had 
rather  soft  feathers  with  untrimmed  edges. 
Most  authorities  agree  that  the  best  vanes 
are  drawn  off  of  the  short  side  of  a  remex 
from  a  turkey  or  peacock  and  left  uncut, 
except  for  length.  In  all  cases  the  feathers 
should  be  set  close  to  the  nock. 

It  is  undoubtedly  desirable  that  the  pile 
should  be  very  light  but  even  here  there  is  a 
limit.  Experiment  will  show  that  the  same 
flight  arrow  will  often  go  farther  with  a  light 
steel  pile  than  without  one. 

1 68  American  Archery 


Using  the  same  artillery,  an  expert  flight- 
shooter  can  do  more  than  an  archer  who  has 
not  practiced  this  specialty.  Much  therefore 
depends  on  technique. 

An  arrow  will  have  the  greatest  possible 
trajectory  when  loosed  from  an  elevation  of 
45  degrees.  Nearly  everyone  is  inclined  to 
aim  much  lower  than  this  and  therefore,  in 
order  to  become  familiar  with  what  the  eleva- 
tion is  really  like,  it  is  well  to  have  a  friend 
stand  beside  the  archer  while  he  is  practicing, 
and  hold  up  a  right  angled  triangle  with  the 
hypotenuse  parallel  to  the  shaft.  This 
need  be  done  only  once  or  twice,  and  the 
triangle  can  be  made  in  a  minute  by  simply 
taking  a  square  piece  of  paper  and  folding 
two  opposite  corners  together. 

The  loose  should  be  very  snappy,  even 
slashing,  and  done  at  the  exact  moment  that 
the  tip  reaches  the  arrow  plate,  while  the 
fingers  are  still  drawing.  There  must  be 
not  even  the  suspicion  of  a  pause  before 

At  the  instant  of  loosing  the  left  hand 
should  feel  as  though  it  were  pressing  the  bow 
away  from  the  archer  as  strongly  as  possible. 

Flight  Shooting  169 

Mr.  Will  H.  Thompson,  whose  great  experi- 
ence entitles  him  to  a  most  respectful  hearing, 
expressed  his  views  on  flight  shooting  in  the 
following  letter,  dated  September  13th,  191 1. 

"I  wish  to  say  a  few  words  about  flight 
shooting.  About  24  years  ago  I  gave  very 
great  study  to  that  matter  and  broke  bows 
by  the  dozen  trying  to  reach  300  yards,  but 
finally  failed  by  two  yards.  I  passed  290 
yards  in  still  weather,  shooting  back  and 
forth,  with  a  snakewood  bow  backed  with 
lance,  using  a  barrelled  4.3  arrow,  28  inches 
long    with    two    feathers    about    like    this: 

These  were  thin  vanes  from  the  narrow  side 
of  turkey  feathers.  The  same  bow  would 
reach  235  yards  with  a  4.9  28  inch  target 
arrow  having  ordinary  feathers.  The  bow 
was  six  feet  long.  Of  course  a  shorter  bow 
will  carry  farther  but  will  surely  break.  The 
Turkish  horn  bows  are  usually  about  30 
inches  long,  recurved,  or  'set  back,'  so  that 
a  28  inch  draw  gets  a  great  deal  out  of  them. 
The  greatest  distances  made  by  them  were 

170  American  Archery 

made  upon  the  same  principle  used  by  you, 
i.  e.  the  bow  carried  a  'pipe'  for  a  short, 
very  light  arrow  to  be  drawn  inside  the  bow. 
Using  a  25  inch  arrow  weighing  less  than  2.6, 
and  of  rigid  material,  such  as  bamboo,  with 
a  very  light  head,  a  flight  of  350  to  400 
yards  is  attainable.  But  with  a  5'  10"  yew- 
backed  yew,  with  a  perfect  flight  arrow, 
(bamboo  being  the  best  yet  found),  28  inches 
in  length,  300  yards  can  be  made  with  a  58 
pound  bow.  I  really  do  not  believe  that  any 
ordinary  man  can  loose  a  stronger  bow  than 
58  pounds,  possibly  60  pounds,  so  as  to  shoot 
any  further.  What  he  gains  in  strength  he 
loses  in  keenness  of  loose.  I  have  tried  so 
many  trained  athletic  archers  and  found  no 
exception,  that  I  am  satisfied  that  nothing 
can  possibly  be  gained  by  going  beyond  60 
pounds  for  any  purpose.  Master  a  55  pound 
yew-backed  yew;  get  a  perfect  4.0  barrelled 
arrow  of  28  inches,  with  only  two  narrow, 
short  feathers  set  close  to  the  nock,  and  with 
a  rather  swift  (no  jerk)  continuous  draw, 
loose  without  stopping  the  draw,  the  left  hand 
hard  gripping  the  bow,  and  you  may  com- 
mand 300  yards.     I  could  never  quite  do  it." 

Origin  for  Point  of  Aim  171 


An  American  Origin  for  the  Point  of  Aim 
By  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 
ORACE  FORD  has  always  been  given 


credit  for  being  the  first  man  to  use 
the  method  of  shooting  by  what  he,  himself, 
called  a  "Point  of  Aim."  In  other  words  he 
is  supposed  to  have  originated  the  idea  of 
trying  to  hit  the  target  by  sighting  over  the 
tip  of  the  arrow  at  some  other  object,  no 
matter  what,  which  was  so  placed  that  it 
would  cause  the  arrow  thus  aimed  to  have  the 
proper  elevation.  That  he  really  was  the 
first  person  who  taught  that  better  shooting 
could  be  done  in  this  way  than  by  centering 
the  gaze  fixedly  on  the  bulls-eye,  is  undoubted. 
On  the  other  hand  it  seems  very  likely  that 
such  a  simple  help  to  aiming  should  have  been 
discovered  and  used  by  various  individuals 
who,  for  unknown  reasons,  did  not  leave  any 
record  behind  them. 

Last  winter  I  unexpectedly  obtained  proof 
of  this  surmise  in  corresponding  with  Mr. 
Frederick  Deming,  of  Litchfield,  Connecticut, 

172  American  Archery 

an  archer  who  still  possesses  enthusiasm  for 
our  sport  and  practices  it  successfully  although 
well  advanced  in  years. 

Knowing  that  they  will  be  of  interest  to 
every  American  archer,  I  quote  two  letters 
from  him  which  afford  unquestionable  evi- 
dence that  he  hit  upon  the  idea  of  the  "Point 
of  Aim"  quite  independently  of  Ford  or 
anyone  else. 

Litchfield,  Conn.,  Nov.  30th,  1916. 
Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer, 

Dear  Sir: 

It  was  a  disappointment  to  me  that  I  was 
unable  to  attend  the  Archery  Meeting  in 
Jersey  City,  for  I  had  promised  myself  the 
pleasure  of  a  talk  with  you  on  Archery.  At 
the  age  of  eighty-four  I  cannot  expect  to 
shoot  much  longer.  However,  there  is  one 
point  which  has  always  remained  a  mystery 
to  me,  probably  because  in  early  life  I  received 
no  instruction  or  advice  from  an  expert 
archer,  though  I  read  Ascham,  Roberts, 
Hansard  and  Ford. 

The  point  to  which  I  refer  is  this :  while  at 
eighty  yards  I  can  get  aim  on  the  four  ft. 
target,  at  sixty  yards  or  under,  my  arrow 
goes  over  the  target,  even  if  my  aim  is  at  the 

Origin  for  Point  of  Aim  173 

lowest  edge  of  the  target;  so  I  have  always 
dreaded  the  short  distances.  Can  you  kindly 
suggest  any  remedy  for  this  ? 

My  bow  is  40  lbs.,  arrows  about  four 
shillings  weight,  although  I  have  tried  five 
shillings  with  no  great  success.  Can  it  be 
that  an  exceedingly  weak  bow  and  exceedingly 
heavy  arrows  would  help  my  sixty  yard 

I  enclose  diagram  giving  approximately 
the  makeshift  to  which  I  resort  to  hit  at 
sixty  yards.  Pardon  me  for  troubling  you  in 
this  matter  but  I  really  am  anxious  to  know 
what  has  impeded  me  all  my  archery  life  in 
this  short  distance  shooting. 

Very  truly  yours, 

Frederick  Deming. 

The  way  I  have  to  get  on  the  target  by 
placing  a  golf  ball  on  the  ground  about  fifty 
feet  in  front  of  the  target  is  not,  I  suppose, 
legitimate  archery,  but  it  is  the  only  way  I 
have  ever  succeeded  in  "  getting  there." 


174  American  Archery 

On  receipt  of  this  letter  I  at  once  wrote  to 
him  a  full  explanation  of  the  "  Point  of  Aim" 
and  all  it  had  meant  in  the  development  of 
modern  archery.  As  an  illustration  I  spoke 
of  how  an  artillery  man,  by  sighting  with 
relation  to  some  known  object,  could  fire  over 
the  top  of  a  mountain  and  hit  a  mark  in  the 
valley  beyond. 

Litchfield,  Conn.,  Dec.  3rd,  1916. 
My  dear  Doctor  Elmer: 

Your  letter  is  a  decided  relief  to  me,  for, 
all  my  archer  life,  I  have  furtively  placed  on 
the  ground  dandelion  heads  and  the  like,  to 
get  my  point  of  aim.  Twenty  years  before  I 
read  Ford  I  used  to  place  a  band  box  on  the 
ground  as  a  guide  to  the  target,  being  careful 
to  substitute  something  very  small  if  there 
were  any  spectators.  My  own  hard  experience 
suggested  this  expedient  for  getting  the 
"  length."  Long  years  afterward  the  following 
lines  from  Ford's  book  confirmed  me  in  the 
belief  that  aiming  at  anything  but  the  target 
was  only  a  makeshift.  Ford  says,  "One  I 
knew,  for  sixty  yard  shooting,  used  actually 
to  fix  a  bit  of  stick  in  the  ground  for  that 
purpose;"  but  Ford  does  not  tell  what  else  to 
do,   says  it  will   "fail  surely  in  matches  on 

Origin  for  Points  of  Aim  175 

strange  ground,"  etc.  Now,  however,  I 
shall  mark  the  "point  of  aim"  with  a  clear 

I  was  in  the  Crimea  during  the  siege  of 
Sebastopol  in  1855.  Your  artillery  illustration 
recalled  to  my  mind  the  shot  and  shell  that 
passed  very  far  over  our  heads,  from  Forts 
Constantine  and  the  Wasp  battery.  Our  party, 
three  Americans,  had  no  business  to  be  there, 
but  it  was  just  a  boys'  venture. 

Thanking  you  for  your  letter  throwing  light 
on  the  "point  of  aim." 

Most  sincerely  yours, 

Frederick  Deming. 

176  American  Archery 


Arrowhead,  the  Archer's  Flower 
By  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 

AT  THE  Annual  Business  Meeting  of  the 
N.  A.  A.  in  1914  it  was  voted  that  the 
Arrowhead  be  accepted  as  the  official  flower 
of  archery. 

The  plant  is  an  exquisitely  beautiful  one 
that  grows  along  water  courses  where  the 
current  has  been  slowed  by  indentations  of 
the  bank.  It  owes  its  name  to  the  shape  of 
its  leaves.  These  vary  somewhat  but,  on  the 
whole,  bear  an  extraordinary  resemblance  to 
an  old  fashioned  broad  head  arrow  of  giant 
size.  The  flower  is  pure  white  and  shows 
well  against  the  dark,  rich  green  of  the  foliage. 
As  a  table  decoration  at  an  archery  banquet 
nothing  could  be  better  or  more  appropriate 
than  this  plant. 

The  principal  varieties  of  Arrowhead,  or 
Sagittaria,  are: 

Sagittaria  Variabilis.  This  is  the  common 
variety  and  gets  its  name  from  the  fact  that 

The  Archer's  Flower  177 

the  leaves  vary  greatly  in  size  while  preserving 
the  characteristic  arrowhead  form. 

Sagittaria  Montevidiensis  (Giant  Arrow- 
head). This  attains  gigantic  proportions, 
growing  4  to  5  feet  high  with  leaves  15  inches 
long.  The  flower  scape  towers  above  the 
foliage,  bearing  white  flowers  with  a  dark 
blotch  at  the  base  of  each  petal. 

Sagittaria  Japonica.     Double  Flowered. 

Sagittaria  Sinensis.  The  leaves  are  dark 
green,  broad  and  strong.  It  grows  freely  and 
may  be  planted  in  an  aquarium. 

Sagittaria  Natans.  This  is  raised  primarily 
for  an  aquarium  plant.  It  has  long,  almost 
strap-like  leaves,  that  float  in  the  water. 

178  American  Archery 


French  and  Belgian  Archery 

By  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 

ON  SEPTEMBER  8th,  1913,  the  New 
York  Sun  printed  a  cable  dispatch  from 
Paris  which  must  have  caused  a  feeling  of 
surprise  in  any  native  American  archer  who 
may  have  read  it.    It  was  as  follows: 

"There  were  1483  competitors  in  the  annual 
archery  match  at  Noyon,  in  the  Department 
of  the  Oise,  which  was  completed  today.  It 
was  won  by  Prodean,  who  will  hence  forth 
have  the  proud  title  of  Grand  Archer  of 

"The  competition,  which  is  keenly  dis- 
puted by  700  clubs,  has  been  in  uninterrupted 
existence  for  400  years.  Today  the  archers 
with  unerring  precision  split  the  targets  with 
wonderful  force." 

Most  of  us  have  heard,  all  our  lives,  of 
archery  as  a  peculiarly  English  sport  and  I, 
for  one,  confess  that  I  was  amazed  when  I 
learned  that  the  interest  in  the  art  is  very 
much  more  widespread  in  Belgium  and  North- 

French  and  Belgian  Archery  179 

eastern  France,  and  the  number  of  bowmen 
vastly  greater  there  than  in  England. 

In  England  it  is  a  rich  man's  game,  where- 
as on  the  Continent  it  is  a  pastime  of  the 
masses.  A  French  viscount  who  is  a  member 
of  the  Wayne  Archers  says  that  he  never 
heard  of  it  in  France  although  he  lived  in 
Paris,  where  some  archery  societies  exist. 
Belgian  archers  whom  I  have  talked  with 
in  Chicago  said  that  it  was  a  game  for  the 
workingman,  in  the  long  summer  evenings 
after  the  day's  task  was  done. 

The  bows  they  use  are  beautiful  instru- 
ments. They  are  all  backed,  sometimes  of 
more  than  two  laminae,  and  are  made  of  hard 
wood,  usually  of  a  dark  color.  The  handle 
does  not  shade  off  into  the  bow  as  ours  do 
but  ends  in  a  wide  topped  metal  ferrule, 
which  sometimes  is  still  further  broadened  by 
a  little  projection,  on  which  the  arrow  rests 
instead  of  on  the  hand.  Quite  often  the  bow 
is  made  in  two  parts  that  screw  together  in 
the  handle.  They  use  much  more  powerful 
weapons  than  we  do.  The  weakest  that  I 
have  seen  were  about  60  pounds  in  weight 
while  many  are  fully  80  pounds  and  some  are 
said  to  be  as  much  as  100.    An  artistic  feature, 

180  American  Archery 

often  introduced,  is  the  carving  of  the  top 
horn  into  the  semblance  of  some  animal,  bird 
or  reptile's  head. 

The  arrows  are  very  much  thicker  than 
ours  and  of  different  appearance.  They  are 
strongly  chested  and  have  a  large  horn  head 
which  may  be  an  inch  thick  at  its  base.  The 
shaft  swells  out  to  make  a  smooth  joint  with 
the  thick  pile  so  that  the  whole  end  has  a 
sort  of  bulbous  look.  The  shaft  is  never 
painted  and  the  feathers  are  fastened  on, 
not  by  glue,  but  by  bright  colored  silk  thread. 

The  archers  that  I  have  met  had  never 
heard  of  the  "Point  of  Aim"  as  we  understand 
the  term,  and  seemed  to  scorn  the  idea.  They 
shoot  as  the  English  did  before  the  time  of 
Ford,  fixing  the  eye  on  the  gold  and  drawing 
to  the  ear.  The  accompanying  illustration 
is  from  a  snap  shot  of  a  member  of  "La 
Compagnie  de  St.  Sebastien"  at  Chantilly. 
It  shows  the  draw  to  the  ear,  or  at  least  in 
the  line  of  that  organ,  and  also  shows  the 
release  by  opening  the  fingers,  as  our  Miss 
Wesson  does,  rather  than  by  contracting 
them,  as  most  of  the  rest  of  us  do. 

The  shooting  is  sometimes  at  a  popinjay,  or 
at  several  of  them  placed  on  iron  branches  at 

A  Belgian  Archer 
Note  the  loose  and  point  of  draw 

French  and  Belgian  Archery  181 

the  top  of  a  pole  which  may  be,  according  to  a 
Parisian  paper  of  May  20th,  1913,  which  is 
in  my  possession,  as  much  as  30  metres  in 
height.  One  bird  is  higher  than  the  rest  and 
is  called  "Le  Coq." 

Usually  a  target  is  set  up  for  the  mark,  as 
with  us,  but  the  freedom  of  our  ranges  is 
lacking.  Instead  of  a  spacious  green  lawn  the 
general  arrangement  is  more  that  of  a  shooting 
gallery  for  practice  with  firearms.  There  are 
two  sheds,  fifty  metres  apart  and  open  on 
the  sides  toward  each  other.  In  one  the 
archer  stands  and  in  the  other  is  a  butt 
against  which  the  target  face  is  fastened. 
All  the  shooting  is  at  the  one  distance  of  50 
metres.  Each  man  shoots  one  arrow  and 
then  gives  place  to  his  successor.  A  marker, 
who  is  protected  by  a  screen,  draws  forth  the 
shaft  after  each  shot  and  calls  back  the  result. 
At  Chicago,  where  I  saw  the  Belgian  archers, 
most  of  the  men  had  brought  only  one  arrow 
to  the  range  with  them.  Mr.  Wallace  Bryant, 
of  Boston,  who  has  shot  with  the  archers  of 
Paris  and  who  is  especially  well  qualified  to 
judge,  says  that  the  skill  they  display  is 
extraordinary,  nearly  all  the  arrows  hitting 
the  center. 

182  American  Archery 

According  to  the  French  paper  quoted 
above,  the  name  of  which  is  torn  off,  the  chief 
prize  in  the  grand  annual  tournament  is 
five  thousand  francs. 

Early  in  the  war  some  of  the  Belgian 
archers  shot  messages  across  the  border  into 
Holland  and  it  was  reported  that  one  of  these 
shafts  hit  a  Dutchman  in  the  neck. 

Of  course  the  very  territory  that  Contin- 
ental archery  flourished  in  is  the  one  where 
the  war  is  raging  most  fiercely.  Let  us  hope 
that  the  great  conflict  will  not  wipe  the  sport 
out  forever  in  a  locality  where  its  hold  has 
been  so  popular  and  strong. 

Woods  for  Bowmaking  183 


Choice  of  Woods  for  Bowmaking 

By  James  Duff 

IT  IS  not  our  intention  to  mention  in  these 
pages  any  of  the  dozens  of  different  kinds 
of  wood  that  have  been  called  into  private 
use  for  bowmaking;  but  rather  to  confine 
the  article  to  what  may  be  termed  standard 
woods  in  use  by  the  craft,  such  as  Yew, 
Lemonwood,  Lancewood,Washaba  and  Osage- 
Orange;  these  all  having  been  tried  and  found 
suitable  for  the  purpose. 


This  wood  has  long  been  known  as  the 
best  of  all  bow  woods,  for,  given  a  straight 
grained  stave  of  suitable  length,  free  from 
pins  and  damp-sap,  one  has  the  makings  of  as 
nearly  a  perfect  bow  as  it  is  possible  to  obtain. 
The  pins  can  easily  be  seen  as  black  spots  in 
the  wood  and  the  damp-sap  as  a  bluish  line 
just  under  the  white  sap,  or  back,  and  running 
its  whole  length. 

Wide,  or  coarse,  grained  yew  is  flabby  and 
lifeless  and  unfit  for  bowmaking.     It  is  also 

184  American  Archery 

rather  liable  to  chrysal,or  even  fracture,  with- 
out any  apparent  reason. 

Throughout  almost  the  whole  of  the  United 
States,  usually  on  the  hills  and  mountains,  the 
wood  grows  in  various  quantities  and  qual- 
ities, but,  unfortunately,  it  is  generally  of  the 
shrub  and  bush  variety  and  useless  for  the 
bowyer's  purpose.  It  can  be  found  in  tree 
form  on  the  western  ranges  of  mountains, 
while  in  the  East,  on  the  Catskill  hills,  single 
yews  can  be  seen  growing  in  isolation;  not  in 
clumps  as  in  the  West.  It  is  said  by  a  well 
known  woodsman,  who  has  travelled  the 
United  States  all  over,  that  Georgia  abounds 
in  yew;  and  we  know  that  in  South  America 
it  is  rather  prolific,  and  that  tons  of  it  are 
shipped  every  year  to  the  Swiss  carvers, 
as  can  be  seen  in  the  well  known  cuckoo 
clocks.  So  it  would  seem  that  yew  is  not  so 
scarce  a  domestic  wood  as  one  might  im- 

The  Names  "Spanish"  and  " Italian"  can 
be  taken  in  these  days  to  be  descriptive  of 
any  kind  of  yew  that  is  of  very  fine  growth, 
but  not  to  indicate  a  product  of  Italy  or 
Spain.  It  is  very  doubtful  if  one  would  be 
recompensed   today  for  a  tour  of  the  once 

Woods  for  Bowmaking  185 

famous  yew  belt;  for  example  the  Apennines 
were  virtually  depleted  many  years  ago,  so 
that  the  tasso  nasso,  or  yew,  has  become  almost 
unknown  there. 

In  selecting  the  wood,  the  bowyer  will  do 
well  to  avoid  the  female  tree,  if  a  choice  be 
possible,  as,  in  nearly  every  case,  it  will  be 
of  inferior  grade  when  made  into  a  bow.  It 
takes  nearly  twice  as  much  wood  to  make  a 
bow  of  a  given  weight  as  does  the  male.  A 
careful  examination  of  the  leaves  of  the  tree 
will  show  at  once  if  it  be  female,  either  by  the 
presence  of  scarlet  berries,  or  by  the  marks 
of  where  they  have  been  when  in  seed; 
characteristics  wholly  lacking  in  the  male 

Bowyers  have  been  taught  by  experience 
that  it  is  immaterial  whether  they  cut  down 
the  tree  in  the  fall  or  in  the  spring,  as  the 
result  is  the  same  in  the  finished  bow. 

The  best  trees  are  found  on  the  hills  and 
mountains,  where  the  ground  is  dry,  or  where 
the  water  washes  past  the  roots  and  does  not 
lie  soaking. 

One  should  mark  carefully,  before  cutting 
down,  the  side  of  the  tree  which  is  exposed 
to  the  north,  as  therein  lies  the  best  part. 

1 86  American  Archery 

Lemonwood  and  Lancewood 
A  common  error  among  archers  is  that  of 
confusing  lemonwood  with  lancewood,  for, 
as  a  matter  of  fact,  they  are  entirely  differ- 
ent. Let  us  consider  the  following  statement 
by  Mr.  C.  D.  Mell,  acting  dendrologist  to  the 
Office  of  Forestry,  Washington,  D.  C. 

"Lemonwood,  botanically  known  as  Psy- 
chetria  eckloniana,  a  species  of  Rubiaceae,  is 
native  to  Cape  Colony  and  often  grows  to  the 
height  of  30  feet,  and  from  2  to  3  feet  in 
diameter.  The  wood  is  very  hard,  tough  and 
useful.  Lancewood  (Black),  so  much  used 
for  carriage  shafts,  bows,  etc.,  is  botanically 
known  as  Guatteria  virgata  Dun.  There  is, 
however,  a  related  wood,  Duguetia  guitarensis, 
native  to  Cuba  and  Guiana,  which  is  also 
called  lancewood,  and  although  this  is  light 
(yellow)  and  very  elastic,  it  is  seldom  used 
for  bows,  but  is  principally  imported  for  the 
use  of  coach  builders." 

Lemonwood  is  the  wood  of  which  perhaps 
75%  °f  the  bows  in  use  are  made.  There  are 
several  reasons  why  this  kind  of  bow  should 
hold  a  high  place,  chief  among  them  being 
the  fact  that  several  bows  may  be  had  for 
the  cost  of  one  of  yew.     Were  it  not  that 

Woods  for  Bowmaking  187 

lemonwood  has  a  tendency  to  follow  the 
string,  or  take  a  set  in  the  drawing  direction, 
it  would  be  considered  as  good  as  yew  in  every 
respect;  but  that  set  is  inevitable,  and,  while 
it  does  not  detract  from  the  shooting  quality 
of  the  bow,  it  certainly  does  not  add  to  its 

That  one  need  never  hesitate  to  adopt 
lemonwood  bows  for  shooting  because  of  any 
supposed  inferiority  to  those  of  yew,  is  now- 
adays generally  accepted.  We  know  that 
nearly  all  previous  records  have  been  broken 
by  archers  using  them  and  that  some  of  the 
most  noted  archers  today  use  nothing  else; 
getting  as  good  results  and  as  much  satisfaction 
as  though  indulging  in  the  most  expensive  yew! 

Lancewood,  though  somewhat  similar  in 
appearance  to  lemonwood,  is  of  a  different 
nature  altogether  and  is  much  harder  to 
work.  As  a  guide  to  the  buyer  it  is  generally 
stained  a  rich,  brown  color  with  nitric  acid. 
It  has  much  more  spring  in  it  and  is  more 
likely  to  shiver  into  small  pieces,  even  where 
the  wood  does  not  show  a  flaw.  For  target 
work  it  ranks  low,  as  it  jars  the  arm  too  much 
for  accurate  work,  but  it  is  certainly  superior 
to  yew  and  lemonwood  for  flight  shooting. 

1 88  American  Archery 

Lancewood  can  be  easily  known  by  looking 
at  the  grain,  which  will  be  found  to  be  shot, 
as  in  beechwood. 


Washaba  is  a  wood  that  is  native  to  South 
Africa,  and  was  but  little  known,  outside  of 
the  bowmaking  craft,  until  within  recent 
years.  It  grows  to  a  great  height,  often 
reaching  80  feet,  and*  has  been  known  to 
show  a  girth  of  9  feet.  Unfortunately  there 
are  two  qualities  of  Washaba,  one  that  is 
nearly  perfect,  straight  grained  and  smooth, 
and  one  that  is  twisted  in  grain  and  very 
coarse.  The  difference  between  the  two  is 
caused  entirely  by  the  conditions  of  growth. 
The  trees  that  are  exposed  to  the  great  gales 
on  the  coast  of  Africa  are  all  wind-twisted, 
that  is,  they  are  distorted  in  shape  while 
growing  and,  as  a  result,  become  almost  use- 
less for  bowmaking,  the  grain  of  the  wood 
seldom  running  two  inches  alike.  On  the 
other  hand  the  trees  that  are  sheltered  are 
all  straight  in  grain  and  make  almost  ideal 
bows,  especially  where  one  seeks  the  sharp 
cast  and  long  distance  is  desired. 

Bows  made  of  this  wood  are  not  to  be  com- 
pared to  those  made  of  the  woods  already 

Woods  for  Bowmaking  189 

mentioned,  because  they  must  be  backed 
to  be  of  any  use,  the  best  material  for  that 
purpose  being  straight  grained  second  growth 
Hickory.  They  are  rather  more  trying  to  the 
bow  arm  than  either  Yew  or  Lemonwood,  and 
are,  therefore,  not  recommended  for  the  fine 
work  of  the  shorter  ranges.  For  the  longer 
distances  they  are  excellent  weapons,  inas- 
much as  the  sharper  cast  allows  of  a  flatter 
trajectory  and,  as  a  result,  the  shooter  has 
the  advantage  of  a  much  lower  point  of 

A  Washaba  bow  of  54  pounds  weight  has 
been  observed  by  the  writer  to  carry  an  arrow 
200  yards,  flying  almost  flat,  which,  at  the 
end  of  that  distance,  penetrated  a  steel 
shield  A  inch  thick  for  four  inches,  without 

The  value  of  this  wood  has  been  recognized 
within  the  last  few  years  by  the  makers  in  the 
fishing  tackle  trade  and  today  most  of  the 
best  surf  casting  rods  carry  a  top  piece  made 
from  Washaba,  or  Bethabara  as  it  is  known  to 
the  rod  maker.  These  top  pieces  are  very 
slender  and  from  six  to  ten  feet  in  length  and 
are  required  to  carry  very  heavy  game  fish. 
They  are  also  very  costly. 

190  American  Archery 

Osage  Orange 

This  wood  is  native  to  North  America  and 
can  be  found  throughout  the  United  States, 
although  most  of  it  is  of  the  shrub  variety. 
Where  it  is  long  enough  for  the  purpose  of 
bow  making  it  is  apt  to  be  too  crooked  to  be 
of  much  value.  However,  even  though  they 
are  not  plentiful,  yet  quite  a  few  good  trees 
may  be  had,  and,  as  the  Osage  Orange  is  not 
known  to  be  marketed,  probably  the  wood 
may  be  had  for  little  or  nothing. 

If  given  a  piece  of  Osage  Orange  that  is 
good  enough  for  the  purpose  of  making  a  bow, 
the  maker  will  produce  a  fairly  good  weapon, 
inasmuch  as  the  cast  is  superior  to  anything 
outside  of  Washaba.  Besides,  the  bow  will 
be  found  to  always  retain  its  shape  and  the 
recoil  does  not  take  so  much  out  of  the  bow 
arm  as  does  that  of  Washaba,  although  it  is  a 
little  greater  than  in  Lemonwood.  For  this 
reason  it  may  be  called  into  use  as  an  all 
round  bow  for  every  distance.  The  weather 
does  not  affect  this  wood  as  it  does  the  more 
famous  kinds,  therefore,  when  once  his  point 
of  aim  has  been  secured,  the  shooter  need  not 
fash  about  the  heat  or  cold,  as  with  yew. 
This  wood  may  be  backed  with  either  Hickory 

Woods  for  Bowmaking  191 

or  Elm,  as  it  is  very  tough,  but  the  self  bow- 
gives  the  most  satisfaction,  if  it  can  be  pro- 

Bow  Woods  and  the  Weather 

Of  all  the  woods  mentioned  above,  Yew 
is  most  affected  by  the  weather.  Sudden 
changes  in  the  temperature,  or  in  the  baro- 
metric pressure,  may  cause  well  defined 
alterations  in  the  cast.  Yew  is  also  more 
inclined  to  tire  than  other  woods,  yet,  in 
spite  of  these  drawbacks,  the  smooth  feeling 
and  easiness  of  draw,  the  almost  unfelt  recoil 
at  the  loose  and  the  sharpness  of  cast  all 
make  the  Yew  the  most  valuable  weapon. 

Lemonwood  tires  a  little  less  than  Yew 
but  heat  and  cold  affect  its  cast  almost  as 

Lancewood  does  not  tire  readily,  has  a 
better  cast  than  either  Yew  or  Lemonwood, 
and,  with  Osage  Orange  and  Washaba,  is 
not  easily  affected  by  the  weather. 

192  American  Archery 


Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them 

By  J.  M.  Challiss 

THERE  comes  a  time  in  the  life  of  every 
archer,  if  he  is  of  a  mechanical  turn, 
when  he  is  not  satisfied  with  the  commercial 
bow  which  is  available  at  moderate  cost,  nor 
is  his  proficiency  sufficient  to  justify  the 
expenditure  necessary  to  procure  a  really  good 
weapon,  when  he  naturally  inquires  "Why 
cannot  I  make  a  bow?"  and  finding  no  serious 
opposition  to  his  inquiry  he  proceeds  to 
explore  a  very  interesting  field.  If  he  is  self 
taught  and  has  never  had  the  benefit  of 
contact  with  real  archers,  or  if  he  has  only 
seen  or  used  the  imitation  bows  that  are  sold 
at  curio  shops  as  genuine  Indian  bows,  his 
attempts  at  bow  making  are  pathetic.  And 
yet  there  is  hardly  any  form  of  bow  that  the 
mind  can  conceive,  or  an  amateur  turn  out 
that  will  not  find  its  counterpart  in  the 
collection  of  Joseph  Jessop,  of  San  Diego,  Cal., 
who  has  collected  bows  from  all  climes  and  all 
peoples.    It  is  strange  to  note  the  fundamental 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       193 

principles  that  will  guide  a  savage  race  in  the 
fashioning  of  their  bows,  or  rather  the 
fashions  they  will  follow.  Many  of  them  are 
diametrically  opposed  to  what  has  been 
selected  as  the  last  word  in  bow  construction 
among  civilized  peoples,  and  what  experience 
has  shown  to  be  the  best  form  to  be  followed. 
Yet  these  people  who  rely  upon  the  bow  in 
many  instances  for  their  sustenance  find  that 
their  odd  and  misshapen  weapons  shoot  and 
shoot  hard.  To  sum  the  whole  matter  up  a 
bow  is  simply  a  piece  of  wood,  horn  or  metal, 
bent  by  the  aid  of  a  string  and  which  propells 
an  arrow  by  its  tendency  to  assume  its 
original  position.  Any  stick  that  will  bend 
will  cast  an  arrow,  some  better  than  others. 
If  the  stick  is  fashioned  in  a  certain  shape  it 
will  cast  the  arrow  better  than  if  it  is  un- 
formed, and  this  form  constitutes  the  science 
and  art  of  bow  making.  Modern  archers 
have  settled  upon  a  bow  that  is  flat  on  the 
back,  round  on  the  belly,  gradually  tapering 
to  the  tips  and  of  about  six  feet  in  length  as 
the  desideratum.  This  is  commonly  known 
as  the  long  bow.  The  bows  of  many  savage 
tribes  are  much  longer  and  a  larger  percentage 
of   them    much    shorter.      The    much    over- 

194  American  Archery  > 

estimated   American    Indian    archer   used    a 
shorter  bow. 

There  is  nothing  intricate  about  bow  mak- 
ing. Compared  with  the  art  of  the  fletcher  it 
is  like  breaking  sticks.  You  can  make  a  bow 
out  of  most  anything  and  in  any  form.  Some 
are  better  than  others,  that  is  all.  In  the 
following  remarks  it  is  our  purpose  to  give 
some  simple  directions,  which  if  followed  by 
one  with  slight  skill  and  much  care  and 
patience,  will  result  in  turning  out  a  con- 
ventional bow  along  English  lines.  The 
'material  out  of  which  you  will  make  your  bow 
is  the  important  question.  If  you  consult 
the  ordinary  book  or  article  on  bows  they  will 
tell  you  that  bows  are  made  out  of  uyew, 
washaba  or  lance."  That  is  very  good. 
Where  are  you  going  to  get  the  material? 
Did  you  ever  see  a  tree  of  such  ?  My  Century 
Dictionary  does  not  even  tell  me  what 
washaba  is.  You  can  buy  these  expensive 
and  imported  woods  in  the  large  cities,  but 
we  do  not  all  live  in  the  large  cities.  That 
being  the  case  we  have  to  use  what  we  have 
at  hand,  and  when  we  look  over  our  posses- 
sions we  are  surprised  to  find  the  wealth  of 
material  we  have  at  hand.    A  good  bow  .can 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       195 

be  made  of  many  of  the  native  American 
woods,  and  the  best  in  the  world  out  of 
Oregon  yew.  I  say  best  for  the  reason  that 
it  has  been  proven  in  actual  contest  that  they 
will  shoot  as  well  as  the  imported  English 
and  Italian  yew  bows  and  last  longer.  But 
then  we  do  not  all  live  in  the  Oregon  moun- 
tains where  this  wood  is  obtainable,  so  we 
must  look  some  where  else.  We  do  not  have 
to  look  far,  for  in  fact  any  wood  will  make  a 
bow.  Of  course  some  is  much  better  than 
others,  but  the  fact  remains  that  with  proper 
attention  given  to  the  grain  of  the  wood  and 
sufficient  length  provided  a  bow  can  be  made 
out  of  the  most  brittle  wood.  But,  of  course, 
a  bow  of  nine  feet  in  length  would  be  out  of 
the  question,  and  that  would  be  the  length 
you  would  have  to  make  your  bow  in  order  to 
use  some  of  the  woods  we  have  at  hand.  The 
most  common  wood  that  is  used  for  boys 
and  Indian  bows  is  hickory,  but  there  are 
other  woods  easily  obtained  that  are  much 
better.  After  use  hickory  seems  to  lose  its 
cast,  due  to  the  fibre  of  the  wood  becoming 
crushed  in  the  belly  of  the  bow.  You  know 
that  every  time  a  bow  is  drawn  to  its  capacity 
the  fibre  in  the  belly  is  crushed  or  pressed 

196  American  Archery 

together  while  that  in  the  back  of  the  bow  is 
pulled  and  stretched.  Hickory  will  stand 
this  pulling  but  fails  when  it  comes  to  the 
crushing  test.  This  characteristic  of  hickory 
is  taken  advantage  of  by  bow  makers  when 
they  make  what  is  called  a  backed  bow  or 
one  made  of  two  pieces  of  different  woods. 
They  select  for  the  belly  a  wood  that  will 
stand  crushing,  as  for  instance  red  cedar,  the 
sweet  smelling  kind  that  is  used  for  making 
pencils,  and  hickory  for  the  back,  and  produce 
a  bow  that  is  as  good  as  the  best.  But  then 
we  have  not  come  to  that  yet.  We  will  tell 
you  about  backed  and  grafted  bows  later  on. 
If  you  have  access  to  growing  timber  you 
can  select  your  own  bow  material,  and  thus, 
have  the  advantage  of  the  city  dweller  who 
will  have  to  get  his  at  the  lumber  yard  or 
wagon  shop  and  be  compelled  to  put  up  with 
old  and  brash  wood  which  in  all  probability 
will  be  kiln  dried  and  consequently  ruined. 
Select  a  sapling  or  young  tree  of  from  three 
to  five  inches  in  diameter,  the  trunk  of  which 
is  straight  and  free  from  knots  or  limbs.  In 
making  your  selection  you  can  take  either 
mulberry,  black  locust,  sassafras,  apple,  black 
walnut,    osage    orange,   elm,    ash,    hemlock, 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       197 

dogwood,  and  if  you  find  nothing  better, 
hickory.  Among  these  woods  mulberry  and 
black  locust  are  considered  the  best,  but  you 
are  not  justified  in  refusing  to  use  any  kind 
of  wood  you  can  get  that  has  a  long  straight 
grain  and  that  is  not  notoriously  brittle. 
Experiment,  and  you  might  find  a  better  bow 
wood  than  has  been  heretofore  discovered. 
When  you  have  selected  your  sapling  cut  a 
piece  from  the  trunk  not  less  than  six  feet 
long.  The  length  of  your  bow  will  depend 
upon  your  size  and  strength.  Your  bow 
should  be  as  long  as  you  are  tall,  but  at  least 
six  feet  long.  For  a  youth  fourteen  or  fifteen 
years  of  age  the  bow  should  be  five  feet  and 
three  inches  or  better  still  five  feet  and  a 
half.  A  short  bow  is  liable  to  break,  and  while 
it  has  a  "snappy"  cast,  it  is  not  pleasant  to 
use.  A  safe  rule  is  to  make  your  bow  of  such 
length  that  you  can  easily  brace,  or  string, 
it  by  the  method  to  be  hereafter  explained. 
After  securing  your  tree  trunk  you  must  re- 
move the  bark  and  then  saw  the  piece  length- 
wise through  the  middle.  This  will  give  you 
material  for  two  bows,  and  if  you  have 
selected  a  sapling  large  enough  you  can  saw 
each  half  through  the  middle  and  will  then 

198  American  Archery 

have  four  quarters  for  the  same  purpose. 
You  will  find  that  there  is  a  marked  difference 
between  the  heart  and  sap  of  the  wood,  both 
in  looks  and  quality  and  we  will  take  advan- 
tage of  this  fact  later  on.  Of  course  the  wood 
we  have  is  green  and  unseasoned  and  before 
we  use  it  we  will  have  to  season  it.  This  is 
done  by  finding  a  running  stream  of  water, 
if  we  can,  and  by  weighting  our  sticks  we 
keep  them  in  the  water  for  from  two  to  six 
weeks,  depending  upon  their  size  and  the 
nature  of  the  wood.  A  wood  with  a  close 
compact  grain  will  require  more  time  than 
one  with  an  open  porous  grain.  The  theory 
in  this  method  of  seasoning,  and  it  is  proven 
in  practice,  is  that  the  sap  in  the  wood  is 
supplanted  by  the  water,  and  when  the 
water  is  subsequently  driven  out  the  grain  of 
the  wood  is  left  tough  and  elastic,  rather  than 
dry  and  brittle,  as  would  be  the  case  if  the 
wood  was  allowed  to  season  in  the  air.  This 
is  shown  by  the  fact  that  kiln-dried  timber  is 
almost  invariably  brash  and  liable  to  fracture 
upon  the  slightest  strain.  Of  course  if  you 
cannot  find  a  stream  to  immerse  your  sticks 
in  you  will  have  to  put  them  in  a  trough,  tank 
or  cistern.    Running  water  simply  accelerates 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       199 

the  elimination  of  the  sap.  Of  course  if  you 
live  in  the  city  and  have  to  buy  your  bow 
material  you  will  get  it  already  seasoned, 
but  be  sure  you  do  not  get  kiln-dried  if  you 
can  possibly  help  it.  Osage  orange  makes  a 
good  bow  but  it  is  very  liable  to  weather 
check,  and  when  seasoned  is  hard  to  work. 
Cedar  is  also  good,  but  it  is  very  hard  to 
secure  pieces  of  sufficient  length,  free  from 
knots.  I  have  made  a  most  excellent  bow 
from  a  piece  of  sassafras  secured  from  a  two 
inch  board  sixteen  inches  wide.  A  sapling  of 
this  wood  should  make  a  desirable  bow. 

While  our  material  is  seasoning  we  will 
discuss  the  size  of  our  bow.  The  strength, 
and  consequently  the  casting  power  of  a  bow 
is  determined  by  the  number  of  pounds  it  is 
necessary  to  pull  upon  the  string  in  order  to 
pull  it  back  the  full  length  of  the  arrow  and 
called  weight.  This  statement,  as  far  as  the 
casting  power  of  a  bow  is  concerned  is  only 
partially  true  as  some  bow  woods  are  much 
quicker  than  others,  and  with  two  bows  of 
equal  weight,  i.  e.,  pull,  but  made  of  different 
woods  one  is  liable  to  have  a  farther  cast. 
It  is  this  characteristic  that  makes  yew  so 
valuable,  not  this  alone,  however,  as  snake- 

200  American  Archery 

wood  has  a  quicker  cast,  but  is  rejected  by- 
veteran  archers  on  account  of  being  heavy, 
and  its  liability  to  jar  and  fragility.  A  bow 
for  a  man  should  range  in  weight  from  35  to 
70  pounds,  depending  upon  the  individual 
and  whether  the  bow  is  for  target  shooting  or 
hunting.  The  main  thing  to  be  guarded 
against  is  to  not  get  a  bow  that  is  too  strong 
for  the  shooter.  To  shoot  with  a  bow  beyond 
your  strength  results  in  poor  scores,  sore 
fingers  and  ultimate  disgust  and  condemna- 
tion of  a  pastime,  the  beauties  of  which  you 
have  denied  yourself  in  attempting  to  impress 
upon  your  fellows  that  you  were  possessed  of 
superior  physical  prowess.  The  best  archers 
use  a  bow  many  pounds  lighter  than  they  are 
capable  of  using.  Archery  is  not  a  test  of 
strength,  but  of  skill  and  the  intelligent  use  of 
such  powers  as  we  possess.  Of  course  as  the 
archer  masters  his  bow  he  will  increase  in 
strength  and  should  in  just  that  proportion 
increase  the  weight  of  his  weapon. 

The  weight  of  a  bow  is  determined  by  its 
length,  the  amount  of  material  left  in  it  and 
the  quality  of  the  wood.  The  hard  dense 
woods  such  as  ash,  hickory  and  osage  orange 
will  require  less  bulk  than  the  softer  woods 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       201 

such  as  sassafras  or  cedar.  In  all  probability 
your  bow  will  range  in  size  from  $4  inch  to 
iyi  inch  square  at  the  largest  part.  A  lance 
wood  bow  1  inch  square  will  weigh  65  pounds 
while  a  sassafras  bow  of  the  same  size  would 
weigh  about  25  pounds.  The  shorter  a  bow 
of  given  size  the  more  it  will  weigh.  We  can- 
not determine  in  advance  just  how  large  the 
finished  bow  will  be  but  will  have  to  ascertain 
that  by  experiment  and  repeated  trials,  so  a 
safe  rule  is  to  make  your  bow  larger  than  you 
have  reason  to  believe  will  be  acceptable  and 
then  reduce  it  to  correspond  to  your  strength. 
After  your  stick  has  been  taken  from  the 
water,  wiped  off  and  dried  in  the  shade  for 
three  or  four  days  and  then  hung  up  over  the 
kitchen  stove  for  a  week  it  will  be  ready  to 
work  upon.  For  your  first  trial  select  your 
poorest  stick  to  practice  upon.  If  it  is  a 
success  in  the  first  instance  you  have  in 
reserve  a  better  stick  more  thoroughly  sea- 
soned from  which  you  can  make  a  better  and 
stronger  bow  as  you  increase  in  skill  and 
strength.  After  determining  the  length  you 
want  your  bow,  measure  your  stick  and  cut  a 
piece  as  long  as  you  want  the  bow  to  be  from 
nock  to  nock,  that  is  if  you  intend  to  use  horn 

202  American  Archery 

tips,  but  if  it  is  your  intention  to  cut  notches 
in  the  bow  itself  to  carry  the  string  then  you 
must  cut  your  stick  four  inches  longer  than 
you  want  the  finished  bow.  The  sap  of  the 
wood  is  tough  and  elastic,  it  must  be  used  for 
the  back  while  the  more  dense  heartwood  is 
used  for  the  belly.  Square  up  the  edges  of 
your  piece  with  a  drawing  knife  so  that  it 
may  be  firmly  held  in  the  vise  with  the  sap 
uppermost,  in  doing  so  you  can  shave  it  down 
until  it  is  \yi  inches  wide,  but  do  all  of  this 
work  on  the  edges,  not  on  the  sap  or  heart  of 
the  stick.  Now  comes  the  important  part 
and  the  durability  and  life  of  your  bow 
depends  upon  your  careful  attention  to  this 
feature  of  its  manufacture.  Now  place  your 
stick,  which  by  this  time  has  been  reduced 
by  the  drawing  knife  and  its  two  sides  planed 
smooth  with  the  jack-plane,  in  the  vise  with 
the  sap  uppermost.  Study  the  grain  of  the 
wood.  Does  it  run  true,  flat  and  even,  or 
does  it  dip  and  thicken  up  in  places,  if  it 
dips,  does  the  same  increased  thickness  show 
upon  both  sides  of  the  stick?  Now  we  must 
reduce  this  sap  so  that  we  will  leave  a  layer 
from  yi  to  %6  of  an  inch  in  thickness  along 
the  back  of  our  bow,  and  in  doing  so  we  must 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       203 

follow  the  grain  of  the  wood  as  nearly  as 
possible.  Of  course  any  slight  wave  or  depres- 
sion we  can  ignore,  and  make  our  back  prac- 
tically level  and  flat,  but  if  we  encounter  a 
pronounced  bend  or  depression  in  the  grain 
of  the  wood  we  must  follow  it.  In  other  words 
a  bow  which  has  the  grain  of  the  wood  "  run- 
ning out"  or  cut  across  on  the  back  will 
not  last.  The  cheap  lance  and  lemonwood 
bows  are  finished  with  the  back  perfectly 
smooth,  while  at  a  meeting  of  the  National 
Archery  Association  will  be  found  bows  cost- 
ing as  high  as  one  hundred  dollars  and  made 
of  yew  in  which  the  back  is  far  from  straight, 
owing  to  the  grain  of  the  wood  being  followed 
in  their  making.  However  the  sides  of.  these 
are,  and  all  bows  should  be,  perfectly  straight, 
so  that  when  they  are  strung  up  and  you 
look  along  the  string  and  at  the  belly  of  the 
bow  the  string  divides  the  bow  equally. 

Now  if  you  have  followed  the  instructions 
above  given  you  have  a  billet  of  wood  i*/& 
inches  wide,  with  a  layer  of  sap  along  its 
entire  length  of  about  ^  inch  in  thickness 
and  more  or  less  rounding,  depending  upon 
the  size  of  the  sapling  in  the  first  instance. 
If  this  convexity  is  too  pronounced  the  centre 

204  American  Archery 

may  be  slightly  reduced  so  as  to  make  the 
back  almost  flat,  that  is,  flat  across  the  grain. 
Now  measure  your  stick  and  find  its  centre 
and  mark  it.  From  this  point  make  a  mark  I 
inch  above  and  3  inches  below.  This  is  for 
the  handle.  Mark  these  last  two  points  by 
drawing  lines  squarely  across  the  back  of  the 
stick,  and,  of  course,  four  inches  apart.  With 
a  chalk  line  pulled  very  taut  mark  the  centre 
of  the  back  from  end  to  end.  At  both  ends 
of  the  stick  mark  a  point  yq  inches  from 
either  side  of  the  chalk  mark.  Draw  lines 
with  a  straight  edge  from  these  points  to 
the  ends  of  the  cross  lines  which  you  have  used 
to  mark  the  handle.  Now  with  the  drawing- 
knife  at  first  and  plane  afterwards  reduce  the 
sides  of  your  stick  to  these  marks,  and  have 
the  sides  at  right  angles  to  the  plane  of  the 

Now  turn  your  stick  on  its  side  and  mark 
a  point  at  either  end  f£  of  an  inch  from  the 
back,  and  1  inch  from  the  back  at  either  end 
of  the  handle,  connect  these  points  with  a 
line.  Then  reduce  the  heart  of  the  stick  in 
the  same  manner  you  reduced  the  sides. 
You  now  have  a  stick  $4  inch  square  on 
the  ends  and  the  centre  of  which  is   1  x  ij^. 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       205 

The  handle,  so  far  untouched,  should  be 
rounded  on  the  inside,  care  being  taken  from 
now  on  that  the  back  remains  untouched,  and 
should  be  made  as  large  as  can  be  conven- 
iently held  in  the  hand,  and  noticeably  larger 
than  the  largest  part  of  the  finished  limbs  of 
the  bow.  When  the  bow  is  fully  drawn  it 
should  not  bend,  even  the  slightest,  in  the 
handle,  for  this  reason  we  are  compelled  to 
leave  a  lot  of  wood  at  this  point.  The 
measurements  we  have  been  working  to  we 
will  find  are  for  a  bow  probably  stronger  than 
we  can  pull,  but  we  have  taken  this  pre- 
caution in  order  to  get  our  handle  large 
enough,  and  having  secured  that  necessary 
condition  we  will  proceed  to  reduce  the  size 
of  each  limb  by  planing  them  on  the  belly 
and  sides  down  to  the  required  size.  These 
measurements  will  vary  somewhat  depending 
upon  the  kind  of  wood  we  are  using.  The 
corners  of  the  belly  are  rounded  and  planed 
off  so  that  a  section  of  the  bow  at  any  point 
if  sawed  through  would  look  like  a  letter  U 
which  was  almost  if  not  quite  as  deep  as  it 
was  wide;  for  instance  if  one  of  the  limbs  was 
I  inch  wide  and  J4>  inch  deep  at  the  largest 
part  it  would   be   probably  y£  inch  wide  and 

206  American  Archery 

xk  deep  at  the  ends.  It  will  be  impossible 
to  plane  the  belly  to  within  4  or  5  inches  of 
the  handle,  as  to  do  so  would  make  it  the 
same  size  of  the  limbs,  when  it  should  be  at 
least  a  quarter  of  an  inch  deeper,  so  at  this 
point  it  will  be  necessary  to  carefully  taper 
the  handle  into  each  limb  by  the  use  of  the 
drawing  knife,  spoke  shave,  rasp  or  scraper. 
The  handle  may  be  wider  than  the  limbs, 
however,  without  harm. 

In  reducing  the  belly  of  the  bow  we  must 
be  careful  to  follow  the  lines  of  the  bow  as 
determined  by  the  back.  The  back  is  the 
base  line  from  which  we  work,  and  if  there  is 
a  kink  or  depression  in  it  we  must  have  a 
corresponding  bulge  or  raised  place  in  the 
belly.  Another  thing  to  bear  in  mind  is  that 
if  we  encounter  a  knot  of  small  proportions, 
commonly  called  a  pin  knot,  we  must  not 
condemn  the  stick  and  throw  it  away,  as 
we  may  save  it  by  doing  what  is  called  "rais- 
ing" the  knot,  that  is,  leave  the  knot  and  the 
surrounding  wood  higher  than  the  limb  on 
either  side  of  the  knot.  Many  excellent 
bows  are  thus  constructed.  They  look  rough 
at  rest  but  in  use  bend  with  a  graceful  curve 
if  properly  made. 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       207 

The  ends  of  the  bow  will  be  finished  by 
filing  with  a  small  rat-tail  file  notches  on 
either  side  for  the  string,  care  being  taken  to 
leave  no  sharp  corners  that  are  liable  to  cut, 
or  placing  horn  tips  thereon,  as  fancy  dictates. 
If  you  want  horn  tips,  and  they  are  the  most 
satisfactory,  secure  two  inches  from  the  tip 
of  a  cow's  horn  and  drill  a  one-eighth  inch 
hole  in  the  larger  end  and  one  inch  deep. 
Make  a  reamer  of  flat  steel  one  inch  long 
running  to  a  point  and  as  wide  at  the  base 
as  the  tips  of  your  bow.  Sharpen  the  edges 
of  this  reamer  with  a  file  at  an  angle  similar 
to  the  blade  of  a  pair  of  scissors  and  having 
left  a  shank,  on  your  reamer  put  it  in  a  brace 
and  ream  out  the  hole  in  the  horn  to  fit  the 
ends  of  your  bow  which  will  be  sharpened 
like  a  pencil  to  fit  the  tips.  Sharpen  a  hard 
wood  stick  to  fit  in  the  tips  and  clamp  the 
stick  in  the  vise  and  with  rasp,  file  and 
scraper  fashion  the  tip  to  suit  your  fancy. 
File  a  notch  in  the  tip  to  hold  the  string, 
making  it  round  and  smooth  and  at  such  an 
angle  that  the  string  will  rest  on  the  bottom 
of  the  notch  when  the  bow  is  strung.  The  top 
of  the  notch  should  be  cut  away  so  that  when 
the  bow  is  fully  drawn  it  will  not  interfere 

208  American  Archery 

with  the  string.  If  the  horn  works  too  hard 
it  may  be  softened  by  boiling.  Finish  with 
emery  paper. 

The  horn  tips  may  be  securely  fastened  on 
the  ends  of  the  bow  with  glue. 

To  brace  or  string  the  bow  slip  the  eye  of 
the  string  over  the  upper  end  and  fasten  the 
lower  end  with  a  timber  hitch,  so  that  the 
eye  will  be  about  two  and  one-half  inches 
below  the  upper  nock.  The  bow  is  strung  by 
holding  the  lower  limb  with  the  inside  of  the 
foot,  pulling  upon  the  handle  with  one  hand 
and  depressing  the  upper  limb  with  the  other, 
a '.  the  same  time  slipping  the  eye  of  the  string 
into  the  upper  nock.  Use  either  hand  to 
grasp  the  bow  at  the  handle  as  suits  your 
convenience,  and  you  will  find  that  which- 
ever hand  you  select  you  will  use  the  foot  on 
that  side  of  the  body  to  hold  the  lower  limb. 

Now  examine  the  bow  and  see  if  it  bends 
evenly  throughout  its  entire  length.  Look 
along  the  back  lengthwise  and  see  if  it  bends 
even  and  flat  or  if  it  pulled  out  of  shape  by 
the  string.  If  the  latter  is  the  case  and  the 
string  does  not  cut  the  middle  of  the  bow  it 
will  be  necessary  to  cure  this  defect  by  scrap- 
ing that  side  of  the  belly  which  is  opposite 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       209 

the  portion  of  the  back  which  is  bulged  out; 
in  other  words,  scrape  the  low  side  of  the  belly. 
Do  this  very  gradually  and  carefully  and 
closely  watch  the  result  of  your  efforts.  If 
one  limb  bends  more  than  the  other  the 
stronger  limb  must  be  reduced  to  correspond. 
Remember  the  handle  must  not  bend  in  the 
least  and  each  limb  must  bend  with  an  even 
graceful  curve  from  the  handle  to  the  tip. 
After  getting  the  bow  to  bend  to  suit  you  it 
must  be  weighed.  To  do  this  adjust  your 
string  so  that  when  the  bow  is  braced  it  will 
stand  from  6  to  6j/£  inches  from  the  inside  of 
the  handle,  and  with  a  spring  balance  draw 
the  string,  at  its  centre  so  that  it  will  be  27 
inches  from  the  inside  of  the  handle.  If  the 
spring  balance  shows  that  the  bow  weighs 
the  required  amount,  well  and  good,  if  it  is 
stronger  than  you  want  then  the  bow  must  be 
lowered  or  weakened  by  scraping  it  evenly 
throughout  its  entire  length,  taking  off  but 
little  at  a  time  and  frequently  testing  to  see 
that  we  do  not  go  too  far,  and  being  careful 
that  we  scrape  one  side  as  much  as  the  other 
in  order  to  preserve  the  balance.  Another  way 
to  test  the  bow  is  to  weigh  out  in  a  sack  as 
much  sand  or  soil  as  necessary  to  give  you 

210  American  Archery 

the  desired  weight,  and  tie  it  up  and  affix  a 
hook  thereon.  Drive  two  very  stout  nails 
at  a  convenient  height  above  the  floor  and 
4  inches  apart;  mark  a  point  on  the  wall  27 
inches  below  these  nails;  hang  your  bow  on 
these  nails  by  the  handle  and  hook  the  bag 
of  sand  in  the  centre  of  the  string.  When  the 
bag  of  sand  will  pull  the  string  down  to  the 
mark  you  have  a  bow  of  the  required  weight. 
Of  course  in  making  this  test  or  the  one  with 
the  spring  balance  you  must  not  allow  the  bow 
to  be  under  strain  any  length  of  time;  hang 
on  your  weight,  ease  it  down  to  the  point 
where  the  bow  will  hold  it,  note  the  distance 
and  immediately  remove  the  weight. 

To  finish  the  bow  it  must  be  rubbed  per- 
fectly smooth  with  sand  paper  or  steel  wool, 
and  the  pores  of  the  wood  filled  with  a  filler 
if  necessary.  Three  coats  of  rubbing  varnish 
or  Chinamel,  well  rubbed  between  each  coat 
should  give  a  nice  finish.  If  the  handle  is 
large  enough,  and  of  such  shape  as  to  feel 
pleasant  to  the  hand  nothing  additional  will 
be  required  beyond  the  trimming,  however  if 
it  is  small  and  hard  to  grasp  it  must  be  in- 
creased in  size  and  improved  in  shape  by 
glueing  upon   the  back   a   piece   of  pine   as 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       211 

long  as  the  handle  and  nicely  rounded.  The 
trimming  will  be  a  piece  of  green  or  red  plush 
glued  around  the  handle,  or  any  other  material 
that  suits  your  taste.  In  locating  the  handle 
you  must  remember  that  it  is  not  in  the  exact 
centre  of  the  bow  but  between  the  marks  we 
put  on  the  back  as  guides,  which  results  in  the 
upper  limb  being  longer  than  the  lower.  This 
disparity  in  length  causes  the  upper  limb  to 
bend  more  than  the  lower,  so  that  if  the  bow 
when  braced  shows  a  very  slightly  increased 
bend  in  the  upper  limb  it  is  not  objectionable. 
Barnes,  the  famous  American  yew  bowyer 
trims  his  handles  with  strips  of  split  leather 
wound  around  the  handle.  A  good  covering 
would  be  a  piece  of  calf  skin,  cut  to  fit,  and 
sewed  along  the  back  with  the  base-ball  stitch. 

Soft  wood  bows  should  have  a  piece  of  ivory, 
mother  of  pearl  or  any  other  hard  substance 
let  into  the  left  side  of  the  upper  limb  just 
above  the  handle,  to  allow  the  arrows  to 
glide  over  without  wearing  the  bow  at  that 
point.     This  is  called  the  arrow  plate. 

The  bow  which  is  now  finished  and  ready 
for  use  is  what  is  called  a  self  bow,  that  is 
one  made  without  a  back.  There  is  another 
kind  of  bow  which  is  a  self  bow  but  is  made 

212  American  Archery 

of  two  pieces  joined  in  the  handle,  and  it  is 
known  as  a  grafted  bow.  As  it  is  hard  to  get 
a  piece  of  yew  of  sufficient  length,  and  suffi- 
ciently clear  of  knots  and  pins  to  make  a 
perfect  bow,  the  grafted  variety  is  very  com- 
mon in  bows  of  that  wood,  and  they  are 
entirely  satisfactory,  that  is  if  well  made. 
Expert  bowyers  claim  that  there  is  a  difference 
in  the  quality  of  the  wood  in  either  end  of  a 
six  foot  stick,  and  for  that  reason  indorse  the 
grafted  bow  for  the  reason  that  wood  of  the 
same  quality  and  from  a  half  length  of  the 
same  stick  may  be  placed  in  either  limb 
of  the  bow,  with  uniform  results.  If  you  are 
unable  to  get  a  clear  stick  of  sufficient  length 
to  make  a  bow  you  should  have  no  difficulty 
in  getting  a  stick  of  half  that  length,  and  large 
enough  to  get  two  limbs  from  it.  Prepare  your 
sticks  by  reducing  the  sap  as  you  did  for  the 
bow  just  described,  and  select  the  butt  end 
of  the  stick  for  the  joint.  To  make  the  joint 
you  must  make  the  ends  of  your  limbs  per- 
fectly square  for  a  distance  of  four  inches. 
This  may  result  in  cutting  across  the  grain 
in  the  handle,  but  as  the  bow  will  not  bend 
there  and  will  be  protected  by  a  whipping  it 
will  be  of  no  consequence.     In  squaring  the 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       213 

ends  you  must  remember  that  in  the  finished 
handle  there  must  be  left  sufficient  wood  to 
give  it  rigidity.  On  the  back  of  one  of  the 
limbs  mark  it  in  the  shape  of  a  W  which  is 
upside-down,  as  wide  as  the  stick  and  at 
least  three  and  one-half  inches  long;  carefully 
mark  the  belly  to  correspond.  Clamp  the 
stick  securely  in  the  vise  and  with  a  fine  saw 
cut  out  the  V  shaped  piece  in  the  middle  and 
with  drawing-knife  and  plane  cut  off  the  long 
triangular  pieces  on  either  side  down  to  the 
outside  mark.  If  you  do  not  get  this  sawed 
out  accurately  it  will  be  necessary  to  dress  it 
up  with  a  knife-edge  file,  using  the  utmost 
care  to  keep  the  surfaces  flat  and  true.  Saw 
two  deep  notches  in  the  other  limb,  first  mark- 
ing them  out,  so  that  when  finished  the  one 
limb  will  fit  into  the  other  and  the  sides  of 
the  two  limbs  be  parallel.  The  two  things  to 
be  watched  in  making  this  joint  are  to  see 
that  it  is  a  perfect  fit  on  both  the  back  and 
belly,  and  that  when  the  stick  is  joined  it 
will  be  straight.  This  joint  is  called  a  double 
fish  joint  and  is  very  strong.  Now  with  the 
best  glue  that  you  can  procure,  the  same 
having  been  put  to  soak  in  cold  water  over 
night,  and  then  boiled  in  a  glue  pot,  or  water 

214  American  Archery 

bath,  and  used  while  boiling  hot,  thoroughly 
coat  the  proposed  joint  getting  the  glue  into 
every  portion  of  the  joint  and  fit  the  pieces 
together,  driving  them  smartly  home  with  a 
mallet,  and  clamp  the  joint  very  firmly  in  the 
vise  until  dry.  In  a  day  or  two  the  glue  will 
be  sufficiently  hard  to  allow  you  to  work  on 
the  stick  and  reduce  it  to  about  the  proper 
size  and  shape  for  the  proposed  bow.  Now 
you  will  have  to  put  a  whipping  of  very  stout 
cord  or  tape  around  the  joint,  starting  well 
outside  of  the  ends  of  the  joint,  winding 
close,  smooth  and  as  tight  as  your  whipping 
will  allow.  This  whipping  should  be  laid  on 
in  glue,  and  after  completed  if  it  will  not  make 
too  much  bulk  in  the  handle  you  should  put 
on  a  double  or  triple  whipping.  There  is  a 
very  severe  strain  on  this  joint  and  you 
cannot  make  it  with  too  much  care  nor  too 
strong.  The  more  whipping  you  put  on  and 
the  tighter  you  draw  it  the  better  will  be 
your  joint.  Let  the  glue  in  this  whipping 
dry  at  least  a  week  before  you  attempt  to 
brace  the  bow,  which,  of  course,  you  have 
not  attempted  before  the  whipping  was  on. 
This  bow  will  be  finished  the  same  as  the 
former  one  excepting  that  the  whipping  will 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       215 

receive  repeated  coats  of  varnish  to  make  it 
absolutely  water-proof. 

The  backed  bow  is  a  most  excellent  weapon 
and  one  in  which  hickory  demonstrates  its 
peculiar  merit,  as  most  all  backed  bows  are 
made  with  such  backs.  To  make  one  secure 
a  piece  of  well  seasoned  second  growth  white 
hickory  of  the  width  and  length  you  want 
your  bow  and  when  planed  and  smoothed 
up  of  three-sixteenth  inch  in  thickness.  Ex- 
cellent backs  may  be  secured  by  procuring 
from  a  carriage  maker  or  hardwood  dealer 
a  buggy  reach  or  coupling.  These  are  six 
feet  long  and  1%  inch  square.  By  looking 
over  a  large  stock  you  can  most  likely  find 
several  in  which  the  grain  is  straight  and  even 
and  does  not  run  out,  which  when  taken  to 
the  planing  mill  and  ripped  on  a  circular 
saw  will  afford  material  for  three  or  four 
backs;  use  sharp  saw.  Carefully  dress  the 
back  you  select  with  a  sharp  fore-plane.  The 
belly  will  be  made  substantially  as  wide  as 
the  back,  at  least  in  the  centre,  and  of  suffi- 
cient depth  to  leave  plenty  of  wood  in  the 
handle.  The  back  of  the  belly  must  be  planed 
smooth,  true  and  straight,  and  upon  this 
planed  surface  the  back  must  be  glued.    The 

216  American  Archery 

surfaces  to  be  glued  should  be  combed  with  a 
fine  toothed  saw.  The  glueing  process  is  the 
difficult  part  of  the  job.  The  glue  must  be 
of  the  best,  in  perfect  solution  and  boiling 
hot.  As  soon  as  it  is  applied  to  every  portion 
of  both  surfaces,  immense  pressure  must  be 
exerted  upon  the  two  sticks  to  force  out  all 
surplus  glue.  You  can  exert  this  pressure  by 
means  of  wedges  or  cabinet  makers  clamps. 
If  you  use  the  former  method  nail  two  inch 
planks  parallel  to  each  other  and  about  three 
inches  apart  on  your  bench  and  provide  a 
series  of  short  double  wedges  for  the  entire 
length  of  the  bow  and  so  arranged  that  the 
small  square  end  of  one  is  snug  against  the 
large  end  of  the  next  one  and  so  on.  By  driv- 
ing the  end  wedge  all  are  thus  moved  and  a 
uniform  pressure  is  exerted  from  end  to  end. 
If  you  use  clamps  use  as  many  as  you  can 
put  on,  and  clamp  the  bow,  back  down,  to  a 
two  inch  board.  This  board  keeps  the  back 
straight  while  being  glued  on.  Do  not  take 
the  bow  out  of  the  clamps  for  a  week.  Dress 
down  and  finish  as  for  a  self  bow. 

It  requires  nice  adjustment  to  make  your 
wedges  so  that  by  driving  the  end  wedge  all 
will  be  equally  tightened   and   you   can  get 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       217 

almost  as  good  results  by  leaving  a  space  of 
three-quarters  of  an  inch  between  each  set, 
and  driving  each  wedge  individually.  They 
may  be  driven  by  a  notched  hard  wood  stick. 
Drive  them  all  they  will  stand.  To  make  a 
good  glue  joint  immense  pressure  is  necessary 
and  you  must  remember  this  is  making  a 
grafted  as  well  as  a  backed  bow.  In  making 
the  joint  in  the  grafted  bow  if  the  jaws  of 
your  vise  are  not  exactly  as  wide  as  the  joint 
you  should  cut  hard  wood  blocks  just  the 
length  of  the  joint  and  place  them  on  either 
side  of  the  joint  and  clamp  the  whole  in  the 
vise.  If  the  blocks  are  longer  than  the  joint 
the  solid  wood  will  take  the  pressure  that  is 
intended  for  the  joint.  Another  thing,  while 
the  back  and  belly  are  to  be  planed  perfectly 
true  and  flat  where  they  are  to  be  glued,  they 
should  not  be  left  smooth  but  the  surfaces 
should  be  scored  by  scratching  them  length- 
wise with  a  fine  toothed  saw,  as  explained. 
There  are  special  planes  made  for  this  pur- 
pose. The  roughened  surface  gives  the  glue 
a  better  opportunity  to  take  hold. 

While  hickory,  next  to  yew,  is  the  best 
for  backs  there  are  several  woods  that  are 
excellent  for  belly s.     Among  them   are   red 

218  American  Archery 

cedar,  the  heart  wood  of  black  locust,  black 
walnut,  mulberry,  osage  orange,  and  sassafras. 
While  the  directions  herein  given  are  gen- 
eral in  their  nature  they  are  intended  to  cover 
the  making  of  an  ordinary  sized  bow  for  a 
man.  Of  course  if  the  bow  is  wanted  for  a 
woman  or  a  youth  the  length  and  size  of  the 
bow  must  be  reduced  accordingly,  as  well  as 
the  draw.  The  ordinary  length  of  men's 
arrows  are  28  inches  and  they  require  a  bow 
of  at  least  6  feet  in  length.  Among  my  bows 
I  have  one  3  inches  over  6  feet,  which  weighs 
65  pounds  and  it  has  stood  a  lot  of  hard 
usage  in  the  wild.  While  we  have  given  the 
weight  of  bows  for  men  as  ranging  from  35 
to  70  pounds  the  limits  are  not  hard  and 
fixed.  For  target  use  45  pounds  will  be  found 
to  suit  the  average  man.  Many  expert 
archers  including  Thompson,  Taylor,  Richard- 
son, et  al.,  use  a  heavier  bow,  at  the  targets, 
while  other  experts  use  lighter  than  the  weight 
indicated.  When  hunting  we  require  a  much 
heavier  bow,  for  the  reason  that  the  arrows  are 
very  much  heavier  than  the  fragile  target 
arrow.  They  are  weighed  in  ounces  not 
shillings.  Then  the  bow  is  more  constantly 
used   than   at   the   targets,   and   there   is   no 

Bows  and  How  to  Make  Them       219 

dwelling  on  the  aim.  The  result  is  that  we 
can  without  effort  fully  draw  a  bow  that 
weighs  20  to  25  pounds  more  than  the  bow 
we  are  accustomed  to  use  at  the  targets. 
If  you  have  a  good,  well  finished  target  bow 
do  not  run  the  risk  of  ruining  it  in  hunting. 
You  will  scratch  and  mar  it  in  the  under- 
brush and  the  quick  snappy  draw  you  give 
when  your  game  is  sighted  may  result  in  its 
fracture.  Make  yourself  a  hunting  bow  of 
hard  wood  and  follow  the  call  of  the  wild. 
There  is  nothing  like  it. 

220  American  Archery 

Yew  Bow  Making 
By  Dr.  Harold  G.  Goldberg 
MONG  poets  the  yew  tree  has  become 


synonymous  with  the  weapon  which  is 
made  from  it  and  thus  we  read  of  the  twanging 
yew,  the  yew  obedient  to  the  shooter's  will. 
"Sons  of  Luth,"  says  Ossian,  "bring  the 
bows  of  our  fathers,  let  our  three  warriors 
bend  the  yew."  So  it  is  not  only  true  that 
the  yew  has  always  been  associated  in  history 
with  the  long  bow,  but  down  to  the  present 
time  no  other  wood  has  ever  been  found  in 
bow-making  to  take  the  place  of  this  classic 
tree.  The  tree,  taxus  baccata,  is  an  evergreen 
which  sometimes  attains  great  size.  Accord- 
ing to  the  encyclopaediac  descriptions,  "speci- 
mens of  remarkable  antiquity  are  commonly 
seen  in  old  church  yards.  The  timber  is 
extremely  durable  and  valuable  and  was 
formerly  much  used  in  making  bows.  Its 
leaves  and  young  branches  act  as  an  acrid 
poison  when  eaten  by  man  and  the  lower 
animals.     It  seems  to  be  a  native  of  almost 

Yew  Bow  Making  221 

every  country  of  a  temperate  climate,  the 
finest  specimens  being  found  in  Spain  and 
Italy."  Wood  from  these  two  countries  was 
so  well  known  and  held  in  such  high  regard 
in  England  that  during  the  reign  of  Edward 
IV  a  law  was  devised  compelling  the  wine 
merchants  of  Spain  and  Italy  to  deliver  a 
certain  number  of  yew  staves  with  every 
cask  of  wine  imported  into  England.  In  the 
United  States  the  yew  is  found  in  the  State 
of  Oregon  and  in  many  other  parts.  Some  of 
the  finest  specimens  of  the  wood  have  been 
taken  from  the  Cascade  mountains  of  Oregon. 
The  tree  is  cut  during  the  months  of  Novem- 
ber, December,  January  and  February  when 
the  sap  is  down  and  then  split  and  seasoned 
in  the  log.  It  is  in  this  form  that  it  is  gen- 
erally supplied  by  the  dealers. 

Yew  bows  are  of  two  principal  kinds,  self 
and  backed.  The  former  is  made  up  of  two 
single  sections  of  wood,  joined  at  the  handle, 
while  the  latter  is  made  up  of  two  sections 
of  wood  joined  at  the  handle,  each  section 
composed  of  two  or  more  pieces  of  wood  or 
other  substances  glued  together  longitudinally. 
Yew  bows  are  made  of  two  sections  of  wood 
rather  than  of  one  continuous  piece  because 

222  American  Archery 

it  is  desirable  to  secure  two  limbs  of  as  nearly 
the  same  growth  as  possible.  Were  the  stave 
of  one  piece,  one  limb  would  be  of  different 
density  than  the  other,  owing  to  the  difference 
in  the  age  and  development  of  the  two  parts. 
The  belly  of  the  bow  is  always  the  rounded 
portion  nearest  the  shooter,  during  the  act  of 
drawing  and  the  back  is  the  opposite  surface, 
a  flat  arc,  always  white  in  color.  The  color 
of  the  belly  of  a  yew  bow  varies  from  a  deep 
chocolate  shade  to  a  golden  yellow,  the  color 
commonly   seen  being  a  light  yellowish  red. 

Of  all  the  woods  used  in  the  manufacture  of 
the  self  bow,  yew  is  the  wood  par  excellence. 
It  is  light  in  the  hand,  sweet  of  cast,  steady 
of  aim  and  has  great  propulsive  power.  To 
obtain  a  perfect  piece  is  such  a  difficult 
matter  that  one  is  scarcely  ever  seen.  A 
perfect  stave  should  possess  a  fine,  close  grain 
which  should  be  even  and  straight,  the  line 
of  demarcation  between  the  white  sap  and 
red  heart  should  be  well  defined,  and  not 
thickened  by  a  blur  of  purplish  discoloration 
which  in  some  cases  is  evidence  of  decay. 
It  should  be  free  from  knots,  pins,  curls, 
season  checks,  galls,  wind  checks  and  pitch 
pockets.    Do  not  let  the  amateur  bow-maker 

Yew  Bow  Making  223 

be  discouraged,  however,  by  this  detail  of 
imperfections,  because  very  good  bows  may 
be  made  from  staves  exhibiting  many  of 
these  faults.  It  is  just  such  difficulties  in 
fact,  that  the  bow  maker  must  encounter, 
that  makes  the  art  of  bow  making  so  fascinat- 
ing, while  the  planning  of  a  bow  from  an 
imperfect  stave  incites  the  ingenuity  and 
skill  of  the  maker  to  a  point  of  greater  en- 
deavor. Were  a  piece  of  wood  without  the 
imperfections  enumerated  easily  obtainable, 
anyone  without  even  an  ordinary  amount  of 
skill  and  with  few  tools  might  turn  out  a  very 
serviceable  bow.  Such  not  being  the  case, 
however,  the  various  faults  must  be  met  with 
each  in  its  turn  and  conquered  in  a  way  best 
adapted  to  each  individual  piece.  The  tools 
needed  in  bow  making  are  as  follows:  A 
hatchet,  cross-cut  saw,  rip  saw,  jack  plane, 
finishing  plane,  large  and  small  spokeshave,  a 
Stanley  scraper,  a  coarse  and  fine  file,  a  glue 
pot  suspended  in  a  water  bath,  and  a  vise 

The  log-sections  are  generally  3  feet  6 
inches  long  by  6  or  8  inches  wide  by  3  or  4 
inches  in  thickness.  The  bark  is  first  re- 
moved and  if  the  log  is  fairly  straight  in  grain 

224  American  Archery 

and  has  not  many  bumps  or  knots  upon  its 
outside  or  sap  surface,  it  is  cleft  its  entire 
length  with  a  hatchet.  Should  the  grain 
appear  to  twist  or  turn,  which  may  be  deter- 
mined by  comparing  its  two  extremities,  it  is 
safer  to  saw  it  in  as  nearly  a  straight  line  as 
possible.  Before  either  of  these  operations  is 
attempted,  the  line  of  cleavage  should  first 
be  determined  with  due  regard  for  the  irregu- 
larities upon  its  sap  surface,  so  that  the  limb 
should  be  as  flat  and  straight  upon  its  back 
as  possible  and  finish  at  the  extremities  with 
the  lines  of  separation  between  the  sap  and 
heart  parallel  to  each  other.  It  will  require, 
as  a  rule,  careful  observation  to  obtain  this 
result,  but  the  effort  is  well  repaid  as  the  subse- 
quent steps  of  the  process  are  much  simplified. 

Perhaps  of  all  the  woods  from  which  bows 
are  made  the  yew  is  the  most  uncertain  in 
quality.  A  beautiful  log  may  turn  out  the 
most  disappointing  staves,  so  the  beginner 
must  not  be  discouraged  by  such  results,  if 
he  ever  expects  to  succeed,  as  these  logs  are 
almost  certain  to  be  met  with;  most  likely 
upon  the  first  occasion. 

The  limb  now  having  been  produced,  we 
proceed    to    shape    it.      The    sides    are    first 

Yew  Bow  Making  225 

straightened  with  a  jack  plane  until  the  block 
is  l}4  inches  in  thickness.  It  is  then  set  in 
the  vise  and  the  back  formed.  This  is  a  very 
important  step  in  bow  making  and  great  care 
must  be  exercised  to  obtain  the  necessary 
result.  Taking  the  actual  plane  of  the  tree, 
which  in  the  log  is  of  course  slightly  rounded, 
as  the  plane  of  the  back  to  be  established,  the 
spokeshave  is  drawn  carefully  backward  and 
forward  until  the  sap  has  been  reduced 
throughout  its  entire  length  to  %  inch  in 
thickness.  This  will  produce  a  barely  per- 
ceptible curve  which  is  to  be  retained  until 
the  finish  of  the  bow.  The  curve  of  the  limb 
must  be  followed,  the  tool  dipping  with  the 
depressions  in  the  heart,  preserving  the  same 
proportion  of  sap  to  heart  the  whole  length, 
i.  e.,  y^  inch  in  thickness. 

Often  it  will  be  found  that  the  sap  dips 
more  deeply  into  the  heart  upon  one  side  of 
the  limb  than  the  other.  In  this  case  the 
side  upon  which  the  sap  is  thinnest  must 
be  selected  and  the  peculiarities  of  the  wood 
followed  upon  this  side.  In  such  a  case 
should  the  sap  upon  the  opposite  side  dip 
very  deeply  into  the  heart,  the  X  mch  may 
be  sacrified  somewhat  for  the  sake  of  flattening 

226  American  Archery 

the  general  plane  of  the  back,  otherwise  our 
relation  of  sap  to  heart  would  be  considerably 
out  of  proportion.  Except  in  the  white 
portion,  yew  is  a  very  soft  wood,  in  spite  of 
what  some  text  books  would  lead  us  to  believe. 
It  is  compact,  but  of  about  the  cutting  con- 
sistency of  white  pine.  We  must  therefore 
use  great  caution  with  our  spokeshave,  work- 
ing carefully  in  both  directions,  following  the 
leaves  or  feathers  of  the  grain,  as  they  run 
first  in  one  direction  and  then  in  the  other. 
A  too  vigorous  stroke  will  sometimes  raise  a 
sliver  of  wood  that  will  penetrate  so  deeply 
that  our  stave  may  be  ruined. 

Having  shaped  the  two  limbs  about  i^ 
inches  in  thickness  and  established  our  back 
a  flat  arc  X  mcn  m  thickness,  at  a  perfect 
right  angle  to  our  roughly  planed  sides,  we 
now  proceed  to  cut  the  splice.  This  is  accom- 
plished as  follows:  A  piece  of  drawing  paper 
is  obtained,  being  somewhat  thicker  than 
ordinary  writing  paper  and  two  parallel 
lines  are  drawn  upon  it.  Our  splice  is  to  be 
a  fish  tail  3^  inches  in  length  by  1%  inches 
in  width.  This  is  marked  out  upon  the 

Yew  Bow  Making  227 

The  lines  are  divided  with  a  knife  and 
separated,  and  the  two  sections  thus  formed 
pasted  one  upon  each  limb  at  its  extremity. 
We  have  first  decided  which  extremity  this 
is  to  be,  selecting  the  end  of  the  limb  contain- 
ing the  greater  number  of  imperfections  in 
the  wood,  since  this  portion  of  the  finished 
bow  is  to  be  the  thicker,  and  consequently 
less  apt  to  fracture.  The  paper  having  been 
pasted  upon  the  wood,  sighting  along  the 
back  to  determine  whether  it  is  parallel  to 
the  sides,  the  limb  is  placed  upright  in  a  vise 
and  we  proceed  to  cut  the  splice.  This  step 
requires  considerable  skill  as  much  depends 
upon  its  successful  result.  Taking  the  sharp 
rip  saw  we  cut  through  the  lines  in  the  paper 
pattern,  being  careful  to  saw  always  in  the 
same  plane  from  top  to  bottom. 

228  American  Archery 

The  splice  cut,  it  must  next  be  glued.  For 
this  purpose  ordinary  joiner's  glue  is  selected, 
not  cold  prepared  liquid  glue.  The  glue  is 
melted  in  the  water  bath  until  it  is  of  the 
consistency  of  sugar  syrup.  If  it  is  too  thick 
the  vise  will  squeeze  the  segments  apart, 
while  if  it  is  too  thin,  the  wood  will  absorb 
too  much  of  it,  so  it  is  important  to  have  it 
just  right.  It  is  better  to  set  back,  or  reflex, 
the  limbs  somewhat  from  a  straight  line, 
about  yi  inch  being  a  safe  angle,  so  before  the 
glue  is  applied,  the  two  limbs  are  fitted 
together  and  this  angle  marked  with  lead 
pencil  as  a  straight  line  along  both  sides, 
well  beyond  each  extremity  of  the  splice. 
When  the  limbs  are  glued  and  joined  after 
this  we  simply  preserve  the  continuation  of 
these  straight  lines  and  our  splice  is  then  at 
an  exact  angle  we  have  determined  that  it 
should  be.  The  splice  is  now  covered  upon 
all  its  surfaces  with  two  or  three  coats  of 
glue  and  placed  in  the  vise,  the  sides  of  the 
limb  protected,  if  the  vise  is  of  metal,  by 
interposing  a  piece  of  soft  wood  between  the 
jaws  and  the  wood.  It  is  squeezed  tightly, 
not  enough  to  crush  the  wood  and  allowed 
to  remain  for  two  days. 

Yew  Bow  Making  229 

We  now  have  a  stave  something  more  than 
6  feet  in  length  and  it  is  time  to  proportion 
our  bow.  The  stave  is  placed  in  the  vise  for 
the  sake  of  convenience,  the  irregularity  over 
the  surface  of  the  splice  caused  by  setting 
back  the  limbs  is  shaved  away,  and  the 
measurements  are  proceeded  with  as  follows. 
Taking  the  3^2  inch  splice  as  our  basis  of 
measurement,  it  is  divided  into  half,  marking 
a  line  in  lead  pencil,  i^i  inches  from  each  of 
its  extremities.  The  middle  of  the  bow  is  to 
be  one  inch  above  the  center  of  the  splice, 
which  point  is  also  marked  off  in  lead  pencil. 
The  rest  of  the  operation  is  very  simple. 
Lay  a  rule  upon  the  back  of  the  stave  and 
measure  off  3  feet  from  the  line  which  has 
been  placed  1  inch  above  the  middle  of  the 
splice,  i.  e.,  that  which  is  to  be  the  middle 
of  the  bow,  a  mark  is  made  upon  each  ex- 
tremity of  the  stave,  and  the  excess  wood  cut 
off.  If  a  measurement  is  then  made  from 
each  end  of  the  splice  to  each  end  of  the 
stave,  it  will  be  found  that  one  limb  is  2 
inches  longer  than  its  fellow,  which  are  proper 
proportions  for  a  6  foot  bow. 
(See  diagram.) 

230  American  Archery 

The  outline  of  the  back  of  a  yew  bow  differs 
from  those  of  the  denser  woods,  such  as 
lemon  and  lance,  in  that  instead  of  inclining 
in  a  sharp  straight  line  from  the  handle  to 
the  extremity,  the  back  is  made  broader, 
inclining  very  gradually  from  the  handle 
until  within  about  one  foot  of  the  extremity 
it  inclines  more  rapidly,  ending  in  a  sharp 
point  for  the  reception  of  the  horn.  It  is 
very  important  to  obtain  this  correct  out- 
line because  were  we  to  adopt  the  pattern 
of  the  denser  wood  bows,  our  yew  would  be 
entirely  too  whippy  at  the  ends,  requiring 
too  much  wood  in  the  belly  and  favoring  the 
formation  of  chrysals,  which  in  time  would 
surely  end  in  the  destruction  of  the  weapon. 
It  is  in  fact  its  peculiar  shape  combined  with 
the  different  character  of  the  wood  which 
makes  the  yew  so  soft  of  cast  and  conse- 
quently easy  on  the  shooter. 

We  now  plane  down  the  sides  of  our  stave, 
much  care  being  exercised  at  this  time  to 
avoid  raising  splinters,  until  it  is  perfectly 
straight  and  is  from  iyi  to  1%  inch  in 
thickness,  depending  upon  what  the  power 
of  our  bow  is  to  be.  About  i}4  is  assumed 
to  be  a  good  general  average  for  a  bow  varying 

Yew  Bow  Making  231 

in  weight  from  40  to  45  pounds.  A  pattern 
is  now  made  of  paste  board,  first  outlined  in 
lead  pencil  and  then  cut  with  a  sharp  knife 
of  the  exact  proportions  of  what  our  back  is 
to  be.  This  is  laid  flat  upon  the  back  and 
with  a  pencil  a  line  is  drawn  upon  each  side 
of  the  pattern  marking  the  outline  upon  the 
wood  which  is  to  be  followed  with  the  plane. 
The  next  step  is  to  form  the  belly  of  the  bow. 
Taking  the  middle  and  not  the  ends  of  the 
handle,  as  is  the  usual  custom,  we  measure 
off  for  a  bow  which  is  \]/&  inches  in  thickness 
at  the  handle  i^-  inches  from  the  surface 
of  the  sap  into  the  heart  of  the  wood.  We 
measure  off  ^i  inch  from  the  sap  surface 
into  the  heart  at  each  extremity,  and  then 
draw  an  irregular  line,  assuming  that  the 
stave  is  irregular  in  form  from  one  point  to 
the  other.  If  much  wood  remains  beyond 
this  line,  for  the  sake  of  saving  ourselves 
considerable  labor  it  may  be  sawed  off  with 
the  rip  saw,  keeping  beyond  the  line  some- 
what to  avoid  error.  From  now  on  the  spoke- 
shave  comes  into  use,  first  rounding  the  sides, 
gradually  approaching  the  summit  of  the 
belly  until  a  perfectly  rounded  form  is 
obtained.     This  is  the  most  difficult  step  in 

232  American  Archery 

the  whole  process  of  the  undertaking,  as  the 
grain  of  the  wood  varies  so  constantly  that 
we  must  always  be  on  the  alert  to  follow  its 
peculiarities.  We  may  now  take  our  Stanley 
scraper,  it  being  no  longer  safe  to  continue 
the  use  of  the  spokeshave,  and  complete  the 
form  of  the  belly.  Every  curve  in  the  back 
of  the  bow  must  be  carefully  followed.  In 
shaping  the  belly,  gradually  tapering  toward 
the  end,  pins  must  be  raised;  by  this  is  meant 
leaving  a  little  more  wood  over  the  surface 
of  the  small  black  points  that  appear  in  the 
wood.  Any  other  imperfections  must  be 
provided  for  in  the  same  way.  As  has  already 
been  stated,  in  choosing  which  end  of  the 
limb  is  to  form  the  handle,  we  have  paid  due 
regard  to  the  imperfections  of  the  wood. 
Keeping  in  mind  that  the  principal  bend  in 
the  bow  is  between  a  point  17  inches  from  the 
handle  to  within  8  or  9  inches  of  the  end,  we 
adjust  the  limbs  accordingly.  To  secure  the 
splice  a  strip  of  soft  wood  somewhat  wider 
than  the  back  of  the  bow  and  3^2  inches  in 
length  is  glued  over  the  joint,  pressed  in  the 
vise,  allowed  two  days  to  dry,  and  finally 
rounded  in  shape  with  the  plane  and  file 
until  it  takes  the  general  symmetry  of  the 

Cros J    •S«cf/'orj  . 

Yew  Bow  Making  233 

handle.  It  should  have  the  same  lines  as 
upon  the  belly  side,  more  wood  being  allowed 
to  remain  at  the  corresponding  center  than 
at  either  extremity,  which  end  in  a  gradually 
sloping  angle.  (See  illustration.)  This  must 
be  further  secured  by  wrapping  it  with  a  thin 
layer  of  raw  flax  saturated  with  joiner's  glue 
and  smoothed  to  an  even  surface.  After  this 
is  dried  hard  and  further  shaped  with  a  file,  a 
coat  of  shellac  is  applied  to  render  the  joint 
moisture-  and  sweat-proof. 

This  method  of  centering  the  bow  was  sug- 
gested by  Dr.  S.  T.  Pope,  of  *San  Francisco, 
Cal.,  an  expert  amateur  bow  maker,  and  so 
far  as  the  writer  knows,  the  method  originated 
with  him.  It  seems  the  most  effective  scheme 
yet  devised  by  any  bow  maker  and  having 
once  handled  a  bow  of  such  proportions,  it 
will  be  found  that  it  balances  perfectly  upon 
that  portion  of  the  hand  into  which  it  most 
comfortably  rests,  giving  a  steadier  aim  and 
allowing  less  chance  for  error  in  every  detail. 

The  horns  are  next  put  on.  Their  openings 
should  be  yi  inch  in  diameter,  or  not  less  than 
t&  inch.  They  are  carefully  fitted  to  the 
end,  filing  away  the  wood  until  this  is  accom- 
plished;  cold   (liquid)   glue  may  be  used   to 

234  American  Archery 

secure  them  in  place.  After  they  have  dried, 
the  bow  is  ready  for  tillering.  The  tiller  is  a 
staff  of  wood  about  3  feet  in  length  with  a 
depression  cut  at  its  top  to  receive  the  middle 
of  the  bow,  and  notches  cut  down  its  face 
at  intervals  of  several  inches  to  a  final  depth 
of  26  inches.  The  tiller  is  placed  upright  in 
a  vise  and  the  bow  braced.  Before  proceeding 
any  further  we  turn  the  braced  bow  back 
up  and  then  down,  sighting  first  along  one 
surface  and  then  the  other.  This  is  to  deter- 
mine whether  the  back  is  perfectly  flat  and 
the  string  cuts  the  bow  exactly  into  halves 
from  notch  to  notch.  Should  the  bow  be 
cast  to  one  or  the  other  side,  we  may  be 
assured  that  it  is  ill  proportioned  and  that 
there  remains  too  much  wood  upon  the  side 
toward  which  the  deflection  is  formed.  This 
is  removed  by  means  of  the  file  or  scraper. 
Now  holding  the  bow  at  a  transverse  angle 
and  satisfying  ourselves  that  the  curve  of 
the  limbs  is  about  equal,  the  handle  is  placed 
upon  the  tiller  and  the  string  drawn  to  the 
first  notch;  in  effect  a  great  cross  bow.  As 
each  successive  notch  is  reached,  gradually 
approaching  the  full  draw,  we  step  away  from 
the  tiller  and  observe  the  curve  of  the  par- 

Yew  Bow  Making  235 

tially  drawn  bow.  This  observation  must  be 
made  quickly,  removing  the  bow  each  time, 
stringing  and  riling  and  scraping  until  a 
perfect  arc  is  produced,  and  the  exact  weight 
which  the  bow  is  to  remain  has  been  decided. 
We  now  finish  the  bow  with  sand  paper, 
steel  wool  and  powdered  pumice  until  all 
file  marks  have  been  removed  and  the  bow 
has  reached  a  fine  smooth  surface.  After 
this  it  is  rubbed  to  a  polish  with  boiled 
linseed  oil  and  the  final  dressing  applied. 
This  may  be  either  shellac  after  the  method 
of  French  polish  or  colorless  varnish  may  be 
used  in  order  not  to  darken  the  beautiful 
shades  of  the  wood.  The  French  polish  is 
applied  as  follows:  Dissolve  white  shellac  in 
95%  grain  alcohol,  making  a  solution  the 
consistency  of  syrup.  Prepare  a  pad  of 
cotton  enclosed  within  a  bit  of  gauze  or  cheese 
cloth.  Dip  it  first  in  a  dish  of  shellac  and 
then  in  a  dish  of  linseed  oil;  rub  the  surface 
of  the  wood  vigorously.  Repeat  until  a 
high,  smooth  gloss  is  produced.  By  this 
method  only  one  coat  may  be  applied  and 
subsequent  attempts  to  add  to  this  will  only 
mar  the  original  coat.  The  first  coat  is 
rendered  durable  and  sufficient  by  repeatedly 

236  American  Archery 

rubbing  the  bow,  several  times  during  the 
season,  with  beeswax  held  in  turpentine,  or 
ordinary  floor  wax.  If  varnish  be  used,  as 
many  coats  as  desired  may  be  applied  and 
this  latter  method  is  chosen  in  the  case  of 
backed  bows,  where  it  is  necessary  to  coat 
the  surface  more  heavily  against  the  effects  of 

The  handle  may  be  covered  with  leather, 
rubber  or  bound  with  braid  to  meet  the  fancy 
of  the  workman,  but  best  of  all  is  a  handle  of 
cork.  To  produce  this,  cut  strips  of  thin 
cork  about  }4  inch  in  width  and  winding 
them  around  the  handle  in  water  proof 
cement.  The  excess  at  each  end  is  pared 
away,  the  cork  smoothed  with  sand  paper 
and  the  two  ends  secured  by  a  binding  of 
leather  strips  }£  inch  in  width,  skived  very 
thin.  Should  we  care  to  further  embellish 
our  bow  we  may,  before  the  finish  has  been 
applied,  imbed  a  section  of  pearl  or  ivory 
just  above  the  top  of  the  handle  upon  the 
left  side  of  the  upper  limb.  This  is  the  arrow 
plate  for  the  protection  of  the  wood  against 
the  abrasion  of  the  arrow  and,  while  it  is  not 
a  necessity,  it  adds  to  the  appearance  of  the 
finished  bow.    It  may  be  shaped  in  accordance 

Yew  Bow  Making  237 

with  the  taste  of  the  worker  and  placed  upon 
the  spot  where  the  arrow  crosses,  excavating 
the  wood  just  enough  to  receive  it  when  it  is 
glued  into  position. 

Backed  Bows 

In  describing  backed  bows,  only  two  kinds 
will  be  considered,  yew-backed-yew  and  raw- 
hide-backed-yew. Backed  bows  were  origin- 
ally designed  to  make  use  of  selected  portions 
of  wood  which  were  considered  unfit  for  self 
bows.  Perhaps  a  heart  was  serviceable  and 
the  sap  useless  and  vice  versa.  Bow  makers 
then  would  put  aside  these  staves  until  such 
times  as  they  had  obtained  two  perfect  sec- 
tions each  of  heart  and  sap  and  from  these 
would  make  up  their  backed  bows.  In  select- 
ing wood  fit  for  the  backed  bow,  we  must 
first  of  all  have  a  perfectly  even  grained 
section  of  sap.  It  may  be  slightly  curved  in 
either  direction  but  it  must  be  straight  of 
grain  and  at  least  yi  inch  in  thickness  with 
the  side  which  is  to  be  glued  upon  the  heart 
perfectly  smooth  upon  its  surface.  It  must 
also  be  entirely  free  from  knots,  pins  and 
other  defects.  This  is  carefully  sawed  from 
its  defective  heart  with  a  rip  saw. 

238  American  Archery 

In  the  case  of  the  heart,  however,  we  are 
allowed  more  scope  in  our  selection.  The 
grain  need  not  necessarily  be  perfectly 
straight,  since  it  is  to  be  covered  upon  its 
back  by  the  perfect  reinforcement  of  sap  and 
so  we  may  utilize  almost  any  kind  of  heart 
providing  it  is  free  from  the  glaring  defects 
already  described.  It  seems  hardly  worth 
while,  however,  to  make  a  yew  backed  yew 
unless  we  have  a  heart  free  of  all  defects  with 
the  exception  of  an  irregular  grain,  which  may 
be  entirely  disregarded  because  it  is  generally 
possible  to  obtain  such  a  piece  free  of  blem- 
ishes, possibly  a  strip  which  has  been  sawed 
from  one  or  more  of  our  self  bows,  and  which 
has  been  preserved  for  just  this  purpose.  The 
heart  section  should  finish  in  the  block  i}4 
inches  in  width  by  iy&  inches  in  thickness, 
perfectly  flat  upon  all  its  surfaces  and  pre- 
ferably perfectly  straight  in  form.  We  next 
make  the  two  surfaces  of  sap  and  heart 
which  are  to  be  glued  together  exactly  even, 
and  this  is  not  an  easy  matter  but  requires 
great  care  with  the  plane  and  file.  The 
writer's  method  is  to  cut  two  blocks  of  some 
soft  wood  about  2  inches  wide  by  1  inch  in 
thickness  and  as  long  as  each  limb.     Now 

Yew  Bow  Making  239 

make  transverse  saw  outs  about  1  inch  apart 
to  a  depth  of  y&  inches,  using  these  blocks 
for  the  press  which  is  to  be  placed  upon  the 
limb  after  the  sections  have  been  glued.  All 
our  parts  are  now  arranged  in  order  upon  the 
work  table  and  the  heart  section  is  laid  belly 
side  down  at  the  edge  of  the  table  and  quickly- 
covered  with  a  coat  of  glue  previously  melted 
in  the  water  bath.  The  sap  is  likewise  glued, 
placed  upon  the  heart  and  next  the  2  inch 
block  of  soft  wood  upon  the  sap.  The  more 
tightly  the  two  sections  of  sap  and  heart  are 
squeezed  together,  the  more  firmly  will  they 
adhere  and  to  effect  this  result  without  all  the 
tools  the  professional  bow  maker  has  at  his 
command,  the  writer  has  found  that  the 
small  iron  screw  clamps  which  may  be  pur- 
chased at  any  five  and  ten  cent  store  will 
serve  very  well.  Enough  of  these  are  secured 
so  that  they  may  be  placed  about  three 
inches  apart,  using  the  under  surface  of  the 
table  and  the  block  of  soft  wood  as  the  two 
surfaces  against  which  the  clamps  are  screwed. 
These  are  placed  quickly,  screwed  into  posi- 
tion with  the  fingers,  and  finally  tightened 
with  pliers.  At  the  end  of  three  days  they 
may  be  removed  and  at  the  end  of  a  few  more 

240  American  Archery 

days  we  may  proceed  with  the  further  steps. 
These  are  the  same  as  described  in  the  case  of 
the  self  bow. 

Raw  Hide  Backed  Yew 

The  writer  will  attempt  to  describe  the 
method  of  Dr.  S.  T.  Pope,  of  San  Francisco, 
Cal.,  with  apologies  to  Dr.  Pope  for  any 
errors  that  may  appear  in  the  text.  Dr. 
Pope  maintaining  that  the  sap  wood  serves 
no  part  in  the  cast  of  the  bow  entirely  dis- 
regards any  irregularities  which  may  appear 
upon  its  surfaces  in  the  formation  of  his  back 
and  planes  the  surface  to  a  common  level,  in 
some  cases  entirely  removing  the  sap  if  it  is 
necessary  to  produce  this  result.  In  every 
other  respect  the  bow  is  built  in  the  usual 
way.  The  bow  having  been  shaped  and  the 
proportions  obtained  within  a  few  steps  of 
the  finished  bow,  the  points  are  filed  at  the 
extremities  to  receive  the  horns,  a  little  more 
wood  being  removed  from  the  back  of  the 
point  to  allow  for  the  strip  of  rawhide,  and 
the  stave  is  ready  for  its  rawhide  back.  This 
is  obtained  from  the  tanners.  It  is  a  calf 
skin  used  principally  by  makers  of  artificial 
limbs    and    is    about  te   inch    in    thickness. 

Yew  Bow  Making  241 

The  hide  is  cut  lengthwise  into  strips  of  \yi 
inches  in  width.  These  are  soaked  in  warm 
water  for  about  yi  hour  and  are  quickly- 
painted  upon  their  inner  surfaces  with  melted 
glue.  The  limbs  are  treated  in  the  same 
manner,  the  strips,  first  one  and  then  the 
other  are  bound  on  at  the  handle,  quickly 
stretched  and  bound  at  the  tips.  They  are 
then  smoothed  and  carefully  bandaged  their 
entire  length  with  a  gauze  bandage.  This 
dries  over  night  and  the  overlapping  edges  are 
cut  off  with  a  pen  knife  and  finished  with  a 
file.  The  horn  tips  are  again  fitted,  glued, 
the  handle  piece  of  soft  wood  applied,  bound, 
finished  and  shellacked  and  the  bow  is  ready 
for  tillering.  This  having  been  accomplished, 
it  is  sand  papered,  rubbed  with  steel  wool  and 
pumice  powder,  the  rawhide  sized  with  a  thin 
layer  of  LePage's  glue,  rubbed  with  linseed 
oil  and  the  bow  finished  in  the  manner 
previously  described.  While  the  writer  can- 
not agree  with  Dr.  Pope's  contention  that 
the  sap  plays  no  further  part  in  the  formation 
of  the  bow  than  a  protection  for  the  heart 
against  fracture,  he  can  enthusiastically  com- 
mend the  method  to  the  bow  maker,  be  he 
professional  or  amateur  as  one  worthy  of  his 

242  American  Archery 

best  efforts.  It  is  a  far  wiser  and  safer  method 
for  the  beginner  than  either  the  self  or  yew 
backed  yew  and  as  for  its  shooting  qualities, 
the  writer  has  nothing  more  to  say  than  that 
a  beautiful  fine  grained  dark  mahogany  yew 
bow  made  for  him  by  Dr.  Pope  has  stood 
the  test  of  a  season's  shooting  in  the  most 
delightful  manner,  finishing  with  no  more 
loss  of  cast  than  one  should  expect  to  find 
in  the  finest  bow,  of  any  quality  and  without 
following  the  string  to  any  excessive  degree. 
It  is  always  best  to  allow  the  bow  to  remain 
idle  for  a  year  before  it  is  put  into  active  use 
for  the  sake  of  seasoning  it  in  the  form  in 
which  it  is  finished.  The  English  bow  makers 
take  about  five  years  in  the  manufacture  of 
a  bow,  allowing  one  year  to  elapse  between 
each  step.  While  the  writer  cannot  see  any 
good  reason  for  permitting  so  much  time  to 
these  various  steps,  assuming  that  we  are 
working  on  a  stave  already  seasoned  in  the  log, 
the  fact  remains  that  a  well  seasoned  stave  will 
give  better  results  in  the  finished  bow  than 
a  younger  piece  of  timber.  The  wood  darkens 
with  age  and  in  the  bow  increases  in  cast,  so 
certainly  some  time  should  elapse  between 
the  finishing  of  the  bow  and  the  time  it  is 

Yew  Bow  Making  243 

put  into  use.  Yew  bows  will  follow  the  string 
to  a  certain  degree  and  lose  about  3  pounds 
in  weight,  no  more,  if  the  wood  is  properly 
seasoned  and  well  proportioned.  If  the  limbs 
are  unequal  in  strength,  the  bow  will  lose 
cast  and  follow  the  string  from  this  unequal 
strain,  and  will  finally  break;  so  all  these 
points  must  be  borne  well  in  mind. 

In  conclusion  let  the  writer  say  that  he 
does  not  pretend  to  be  a  bow  maker  of  any 
particular  merit  or  even  long  experience.  He 
does  not  claim  that  the  methods  mentioned 
are  the  best,  but  they- are  practical,  and  an 
attempt  has  been  made  to  present  them  to  the 
reader  in  a  concise  and  comprehensible  form, 
leaving  nothing  to  be  assumed.  If  he  has 
succeeded  in  this,  he  will  feel  amply  repaid 
for  the  effort.  In  this  form  they  are  offered 
to  the  reader  with  the  hope  that  he  will 
derive  as  much  pleasure  from  their  practice  as 
the  author. 

"Thus  when  our  sports  are  over, 
In  Autumn's  final  day, 
Each  Bowman  sure  will  say; 
Come,  a  parting  cup, 
Ay  and  bumper  it  up 

To  the  next  merry  twang  of  the  tough  yew 
bow."  (Dodd,  1 81 8) 

244  American  Archery 


How  to  Make  a  Bow-String 

By  L.W.  Max 'son , 

Seven  Times  Champion  Archer  of  the  United 

(Although  the  following  article  was  printed  in  the  Archer's  Regis- 
ter for  1903,  Mr.  Maxson,  shortly  before  his  death,  kindly  furnished 
a  manuscript  copy  for  this  book.) 

TAKE  best  flax  thread  (Barbour's  No.  12 
preferred),  and  form  three  strands  of 
fifteen  threads  each.  Wax  these  and  cut 
out  the  threads  at  one  end  to  form  an  even 
taper  eight  or  ten  inches  long.  Form  double 
tapers  of  a  little  more  than  twice  this  length 
and  wax  these  to  the  main  strands  so  as  to 
lengthen  the  loops  when  completed.  Lay  the 
strands  together  and,  beginning  where  the 
loop  is  to  be  formed,  roll  or  twist  each  of  the 
strands  away  from  the  body  and  lay  the  outer- 
most over  the  others,  drawing  it  firmly  to- 
wards you.  Continue  this  operation,  always 
using  the  outer  strand,  till  you  have  formed 
a  cord  long  enough  for  the  loop.  Turn  this 
back  upon  itself  and  wax  down  the  tapered 

How  to  Made  a  Bow-String  245 

ends,  each  with  one  of  the  main  strands  of 
the  string,  arranging  them  so  that  they  em- 
brace one  of  the  other  strains.  With  the 
ends  of  the  loop  in  close  contact,  resume  the 
laying  operation,  "  twisting  from  and  draw- 
ing towards,"  till  the  cord  has  been  laid 
beyond  the  filling  pieces.  Comb  out  the 
strands  with  the  fingers,  draw  tight,  and  cut 
off  about  eight  inches  longer  than  the  desired 
length  of  the  bow-string,  taper  the  ends  and 
add  strengthening  sections  as  before. 

At  this  point  I  generally  catch  the  finished 
loop  over  the  nock  of  the  bow  and  drawing, 
the  strands  tight,  begin  to  form  the  second 
loop  about  two  inches  short  of  the  opposite 
nock.  The  second  loop  is  formed  exactly 
like  the  first,  the  three  strands  of  the  string 
being  combed  out  as  necessary,  to  prevent 
tangling.  When  the  loops  have  been  com- 
pleted, wax  together  all  the  strands,  partly 
twist  them,  and  stretch  upon  the  bow.  Rub 
down  with  a  piece  of  paper  and  repeat  the 
twisting  and  rubbing  till  the  portion  of  the 
string  between  the  said  sections  becomes 
round  and  hard,  and  the  bow  is  strung  to  the 
right  height.  A  coat  of  varnish  and  proper 
serving   complete   as   good    a    string   as    any 

246  American  Archery 

archer  needs.  If  the  archer  prefers,  a  silken 
serving  may  be  laid  on  from  loop  to  loop.  For 
a  ladies'  bow  three  strands  of  thirteen  threads 
are  used. 

A  bow-string  made  as  above  seldom  gives 
down,  when  once  stretched,  and  may  be 
adjusted  in  a  moment  by  giving  it  a  slight 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  247 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making 
By  Z.  E.  Jackson 

THE  construction  of  a  good  arrow  re- 
quires attention  to  so  much  minutia 
and  detail  that  it  seems  almost  a  hopeless 
task  to  attempt  to  describe  the  many  opera- 
tions in  a  single  chapter.  It  will  be  under- 
stood in  the  beginning  that  this  is  not  in- 
tended as  a  lexicon  or  an  archery  dictionary 
and  if  the  weight  of  a  bow  is  mentioned  as 
being  50  pounds  it  does  not  mean  that  that 
bow,  if  laid  upon  the  scales,  would  register 
50  pounds  in  weight.  Likewise,  if  an  arrow 
is  referred  to  as  4-6,  meaning  4  shillings  6 
pence,  it  does  not  refer  to  the  cost  of  the  arrow 
but  to  its  weight.  Where  the  superlative 
"best"  appears  it  does  not  mean  that  the 
particular  method  or  material  referred  to 
as  being  best  is  the  best  that  the  art  or  market 
has  ever  afforded,  but  is  the  best  within  the 
experience  of  the  writer.  If  the  name  of 
a  dealer  in  materials  is  used  it  is  for  the 
purpose  of  giving  to  the  lovers  of  archery 

248  American  Archery 

the  benefit  of  much  research  in  the  market, 
and  not  for  the  purpose  of  advertising  any- 
particular  firm. 

One  of  the  difficulties  met  by  amateurs  in 
the  manufacture  of  their  archery  tackle  is  the 
lack  of  information  as  to  where  materials 
may  be  secured.  If  reference  be  made  to 
some  particular  method  adopted  by  com- 
mercial arrow  makers  it  is  for  the  purpose  of 
comparison  and  not  with  the  spirit  of  finding 
fault.  I  shall  probably  overlook  many  im- 
portant details  but  no  suggestion  here  made 
can  be  profitably  omitted. 

Of  the  numerous  books  on  archery  that  I 
have  read, — and  my  reading  has  covered 
practically  the  entire  field — I  have  yet  to  find 
a  single  one  that  gave  definite  instructions 
that  would  be  of  benefit  to  the  amateur. 
They  all  call  attention  to  most  of  the  require- 
ments and  then  fail  to  state  how  to  secure  the 
necessary  result.  They  speak  of  cutting  a 
feather  as  though  no  more  skill  were  required 
than  in  clearing  the  back  yard  of  weeds. 
Glue  is  just  glue  without  information  as  to 
which  kinds  are  best  adapted.  English  deal 
is  referred  to  as  a  particular  kind  of  wood, 
but  so  far  as  I  am  able  to  learn  from  inquiry 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  249 

of  the  tradesmen,  deal  is  an  English  expression 
denoting  dimension  lumber.  I  might  fill  a 
chapter  with  reference  to  the  generalities 
used  by  writers  in  attempting  to  describe  the 
making  of  an  arrow  but  it  would  be  to  no 
good  purpose.  I  shall  endeavor  to  set  down 
what  information  I  have  secured  in  a  long- 
continued  effort  to  learn  the  mysteries  and 
secrets  of  the  old  arrow  makers  and  which 
they  have  apparently  guarded  with  jealous 
care.  I  do  not  wish  to  be  understood  as 
saying  that  the  methods  described  are  the 
only  methods  which  will  give  good  results; 
what  I  do  assert  is  that  if  the  instructions  are 
followed  the  product  will  be  an  arrow  of 
which  no  man  need  be  ashamed  in  field  or 

Inasmuch  as  there  are  many  points  of 
similarity  between  a  target  arrow  and  hunting 
arrow  I  shall  first  describe  the  method  of 
making  a  target  arrow  and  will  then  refer  to 
such  changes  as  are  made  necessary  by  the 
diiference  in  use  of  the  target  and  hunting 
arrow.  I  make  no  reference  to  the  weights  of 
either  kind  as  that  depends  upon  the  in- 
dividual choice  and  strength  of  the  bow 

250  American  Archery 

The  material  used  for  the  shaft  of  the  target 
arrow  is  invariably  some  species  of  pine  with 
a  hard  material  for  a  nock  to  prevent  splitting, 
and  a  wood  harder  and  heavier  than  pine  for 
the  footing.  In  a  fourteen  years'  search  I 
have  never  been  able  to  secure  a  good  piece 
of  pine.  I  have  tried  hard  pine,  yellow  pine, 
Western  pine,  Southern  pine,  spruce  and 
Oregon  fir.  A  clear  piece  of  close,  vertical 
grain  hard  pine  flooring  is  fair  material,  but 
the  best  American  wood  is  Oregon  fir,  care 
being  taken  to  select  staves  in  which  the  grain 
is  very  fine  and  does  not  run  out  of  a  ^ 
of  an  inch  square  stave  in  28  inches.  Needless 
to  say,  the  material  should  be  well  seasoned 
but  not  kiln  dried.  Kiln  dried  lumber  is  as 
useless  for  archery  tackle  as  driftwood.  That 
end  of  the  pine  stave  which  will  be  footed 
is  then  planed  down  on  two  sides,  a  distance 
of  5^  inches  from  the  forward  end  and 
brought  to  a  feathered  edge  of  a  thickness 
equal  to  the  saw  slot  in  the  footing  hereafter 
mentioned.  This  work  is  best  done  by  hand 
and  instead  of  placing  the  stave  on  a  bench 
and  planing  it,  the  plane  is  held  in  an  in- 
verted position  in  the  vise  and  the  stave 
planed  by  drawing  it  over  the  plane.     The 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  251 

pressure  required  bends  the  thin  edge  of  the 
stave  producing  a  result  very  much  as  in 
the  hollow  ground  razor;  that  is,  the  edges  of 
the  wedge  are  not  a  straight  line  but  a  curve. 

The  footing  may  be  of  any  hard,  heavy 
wood.  Beefwood  does  not  work  well  under 
the  plane;  the  grain  is  gnarly  like  maple. 
Snakewood  makes  a  beautiful  footing  but 
does  not  hold  the  glue  without  special  treat- 
ment. Lancewood  does  not  give  the  desired 
contrast  in  color;  mahogany  is  too  light  in 
weight;  ebony  is  too  brash;  the  many  differ- 
ent kinds  of  rosewood  are  too  light;  amaranth 
is  best.  It  takes  glue  and  still  works  perfectly 
under  the  plane  or  the  rasp  or  in  the  lathe. 
It  may  be  secured  from  any  of  the  hardwood 
dealers  in  the  large  cities,  Boston,  particularly. 
It  is  usually  sold  by  weight  and  costs  from  40c 
to  75c  a  pound,  according  to  the  avarice  of  the 
dealer.  The  footing  is  cut  8  inches  long  and 
^4  inch  square.  It  is  slotted  from  one  end 
a  distance  of  5^  inches.  The  making  of 
the  slot  is  more  or  less  troublesome.  It  may 
be  done  with  a  hacksaw  in  which  the  blade  is 
set  at  right  angles  with  the  frame.  A  backed 
saw  will  not  reach  the  depth  of  the  slot.  A 
good  hand  tool  for  cutting  the  slot  is  made 

252  American  Archery 

on  the  order  of  a  Chinese  saw,  which  has  a 
rectangular  shaped  frame  with  the  handle  on 
one  end  and  a  hacksaw  blade  secured  length- 
wise in  the  rectangle.  This  permits  the 
material  to  pass  up  through  the  frame  without 
obstruction.  If  you  have  power,  a  five  inch 
Disston  cabinet-maker's  circular  saw  is  the 
best.  It  has  no  set,  being  thicker  at  the 
periphery  than  at  the  center.  It  leaves  the 
work  free  from  kerf  and  almost  as  smooth  as 
if  planed.  If  a  circular  saw  is  used  the  very 
bottom  of  the  slot  must  be  squared  with  a 
few  strokes  of  a  thin  hacksaw  blade. 

The  contact  surfaces  of  the  wedge  and  the 
slot  are  then  covered  with  a  good  glue  and 
the  wedge  forced  into  the  slot,  in  doing  which 
the  footing  is  clamped  in  the  vise  up  to  the 
bottom  end  of  the  slot  to  avoid  splitting. 
Before  being  removed  from  the  vise  clamps 
are  applied  and  set  firm.  No  fewer  than  three 
clamps  for  each  footing  should  be  used. 
More  would  be  better.  A  very  convenient 
and  efficient  clamp  for  this  purpose  may  be 
made  from  bar  steel  bent  into  the  shape  of  a 
U,  provided  with  a  yq  inch  stove  bolt  for 
a  screw.  The  glue  should  be  permitted  to 
dry  at  least  24  hours.     Any  good  quality  of 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  253 

glue  will  do  for  this  purpose  so  long  as  it  is 
well  dissolved  and  in  good  condition.  While 
on  the  subject  of  glue,  I  wish  to  say  that  for 
gluing  on  the  footings  LePage's  liquid  glue  is 
good.  There  are  frequent  delays  and  adjust- 
ments that  often  permit  hot  glue  to  become 
cold  and  to  "cheese."  The  best  glue  I  have 
found  for  this  part  of  the  work  is  a  liquid 
fish  glue  made  by  the  Imperial  Glue  Com- 
pany of  San  Francisco.  With  the  exception 
of  a  special  glue,  which  will  be  hereafter 
mentioned  in  connection  with  feathering,  the 
Imperial  glue  is  the  best  I  have  ever  found 
for  all  'round  archery  tackle  work. 

After  the  clamps  are  removed  from  the 
footing  the  wings  of  the  footing  will  extend 
beyond  the  sides  of  the  shaft  yq  of  an  inch. 
These  extensions  should  be  planed  off  until 
the  shaft  again  assumes  its  dimension  of  a 
straight  stave  ty&  of  an  inch  square. 

A  grooved  board,  such  as  a  piece  of  flooring, 
36  inches  long,  is  held  in  the  vise  with  the 
groove  uppermost  in  which  a  wooden  stop 
near  one  end  has  been  provided.  The  stave 
is  laid  in  the  groove  and  the  four  corners 
planed  until  the  stave  is  reduced  to  a  true 
octagon.     The    corners   of   the   octagon    are 

254  American  Archery 

then  removed  in  the  same  way  and  so  on 
until  the  stave  has  been  reduced  to  a  true 
round.  It  is  then  further  reduced  with  vary- 
ing grades  of  sand  paper,  in  doing  which  the 
arrow  is  given  a  decided  spiral  or  rotary 

A  power  driven  tool  on  the  order  of  a 
dowel  cutter  is  best  for  turning  the  shaft,  in 
case  the  maker  chooses  to  use  a  machine 

It  is  best  to  make  1 8  or  24  arrows  at  a  time. 
Some  will  turn  out  bad,  some  be  ruined.  The 
staves,  although  taken  from  the  same  stick, 
will  vary  in  weight,  often  as  much  as  10 
grains,  depending  upon  the  thickness  of  the 
year  marks. 

After  reducing  all  shafts  to  practically  the 
same  size  they  are  cut  to  the  same  length 
and  the  nock  end  of  the  shaft  is  provided  with 
a  V  shaped  slot  for  receiving  the  nock,  which 
is  placed  there  to  prevent  splitting  by  the 
string.  The  making  of  that  slot  is  trouble- 
some. It  may  be  done  by  holding  the  rounded 
shaft  in  the  vise,  having  provided  a  split 
block  in  which  a  hole  has  been  bored  approx- 
imately the  size  of  the  shaft,  and  which  is 
used  as  a  clamp  in  the  vise  to  avoid  bruising 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  255 

the  shaft.  A  fine  tooth  hacksaw  may  be 
used.  By  fine  tooth  hacksaw  I  mean  one 
made  for  sawing  tubing,  in  which  the  teeth 
are  double  set;  that  is,  two  teeth  are  set  to 
the  right  and  then  two  to  the  left.  The  best 
one  is  the  Globe,  on  sale  by  all  first-class 
hardware  dealers.  Later  I  will  refer  to  a 
coarse  hacksaw  which  has  the  single  set, 
such  as  the  well-known  Star.  It  goes  without 
saying  that  a  hacksaw,  to  be  of  service  in 
working  wood,  should  never  be  used  on  metal. 

The  slot  for  the  nock  may  be  sawed  out 
carefully  and  finished  with  a  knife-edge  file. 
I  have,  however,  long  since  abandoned  that 
plan  and  instead  use  a  circular  saw  specially 
made  by  myself  for  that  purpose.  It  is  \% 
inches  in  diameter,  has  regular  saw  teeth  on 
the  periphery,  on  a  cross-section  of  one-half 
of  which  shows  the  V  shape,  the  saw  being 
tyi  of  an  inch  thick  at  the  center  and  brought 
to  a  feather  edge  at  the  periphery.  Long 
slots  are  cut  in  the  saw  on  a  tangent  with  a 
circle,  the  periphery  of  which  is  ty^  of  an  inch 
outside  of  the  mandril  hole.  These  slots  are 
four  in  number  and  are  themselves  provided 
with  teeth,  the  clearance  being  secured  by 
grinding  away  the  metal  back  of  the  teeth. 

256  American  Archery 

I  realize  that  this  is  an  imperfect  description 
but  I  am  endeavoring  to  describe  the  process 
without  the  aid  of  drawings  and  illustrations. 
The  saw  mentioned  is  driven  at  about  3,000 
R.P.M.  and  although  crude  in  appearance 
and  design  does  the  work  well  and  almost 
instantly,  whereas  the  making  of  the  slot  by- 
hand  is  tedious  and  unsatisfactory  and  is 
often  the  cause  of  ruining  partially  com- 
pleted shaft. 

Various  materials,  including  hard  wood, 
horn,  shell,  bone,  ivory,  and  metal,  are  used 
for  nocking  the  arrow  but  the  ordinary  red 
wood-fiber,  such  as  is  extensively  used  in 
electrical  work,  is  the  best.  It  takes  the 
glue  well  and  gives  the  desired  contrast  in 
color,  besides  being  exceedingly  tough.  The 
notch  for  the  string  should,  however,  be  made 
across  the  grain.  I  have  never  known  a 
fibre  nock  to  split  except  when  struck  by 
another  arrow.  The  nock  is  first  reduced  to 
the  shape  of  a  wedge  l%  inches  long  and 
approximately  the  size  of  the  V  shaped  slot 
made  to  receive  it  and  be  readily  worked  into 
shape  by  sawing  with  a  fine  tooth  backed  saw. 
A  coarse  hacksaw  is  better.  The  best  plan, 
however,  is  to  secure  a  strip  a  foot  long  and 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  257 

Y%  of  an  inch  thick  and  1%  inches  wide,  glue 
or  screw  the  strip  flatwise  with  brass  screws 
on  a  strip  of  wood,  which  has  been  beveled 
on  one  edge  at  such  an  angle  that  when  the 
wood  is  flat  on  the  saw  table  a  vertical  line 
will  pass  from  the  corner  of  one  edge  to  the 
opposite  corner  on  the  other  edge  and  divide 
the  strip  of  fiber  in  two  long  wedge-shaped 
sections.  With  a  fine-tooth,  cross-cut,  circu- 
lar saw,  rip  the  strip  of  fiber  from  one  end  to 
the  other.  The  brass  screws  will  not  injure 
the  saw.  This  will  produce  the  long,  wedge- 
shaped  strips  referred  to  and  sections  may  be 
readily  cut  therefrom  with  a  coarse  hack  or 
backed  saw  or  on  the  circular  saw,  and  which 
sections  are  approximately  the  shape  of  the 
nock  to  be  placed  in  the  V  shaped  slot.  This 
method  saves  a  vast  amount  of  work  and 
produces  nocks  of  uniform  size.  The  contact 
surfaces  of  the  fiber  and  of  the  slot  are  then 
covered  with  glue,  the  fiber  inserted  in  the 
slot  and  clamped  as  with  the  footing  until 
the  glue  has  thoroughly  dried. 

The  result  of  the  foregoing  operations  is  a 
round  shaft  approximately  n/32  of  an  inch 
in  diameter  and  of  a  length  best  suited  to  the 
archer,  which  under  no  circumstances  should 

258  American  Archery 

be  more  than  28  inches  unless  the  archer 
possesses  arms  of  unusual  length  and  uses  a 
bow  longer  than  six  feet.  I  hold  that  a  six 
foot  bow  of  the  type  of  the  English  long  bow, 
drawn  more  than  28  inches  is  abused  and  will 
not  last.  The  shaft  as  so  far  finished  will 
produce  an  arrow  of  approximately  5  shillings 
in  weight,  which  is  too  heavy  for  a  bow  under 
55  pounds.  For  weaker  bows  the  shaft  should 
be  reduced  in  diameter.  The  rounded  shaft 
is  again  placed  in  the  grooved  board  and  the 
nock  end  given  a  gradual  taper  with  a  very 
light  cutting  plane,  or  a  wood  rasp  or  mill- 
cut  file,  beginning  6  inches  from  the  nock 
end  and  gradually  tapering  to  a  diameter  of 
%2  of  an  inch  at  the  extreme  end  of  the  nock. 
The  nock  end  is  then  rounded  with  a  fine 
mill-cut  file,  or  what  is  best  a  coarse  emery 

The  notch  for  the  string  may  be  made  in 
numerous  ways,  either  with  two  cuts  of  a 
coarse  hacksaw  and  then  finished  with  a 
round-edged,  flat  file,  or  with  a  circular  saw 
4  inches  in  diameter  and  equal  in  thickness  to 
the  finished  notch  and  rounded  on  the  peri- 
phery to  conform  to  the  notch  to  the  bow 
string.     Such  a  saw  must  be  kept  sharp  and 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  259 

travel  at  a  high  rate  of  speed,  3,000  or  more. 
Otherwise  it  will  tear  the  fiber.  In  cutting 
the  V  shaped  slot  it  should  be  cut  with  the 
grain  of  the  shaft.  This  will  permit  the 
string  notch  to  be  cut  at  right  angles  with 
the  grain  of  the  shaft,  thereby  permitting 
the  arrow  to  ride  the  bow  on  the  edge  of  the 
grain  rather  than  on  the  flake.  This  is 
essential  for  two  reasons.  The  arrow  is  stiffer 
in  that  direction  and  withstands  the  slap 
on  the  bow  better.  The  other  reason  is  that 
the  arrow  will  not  wear  away  as  it  would  if 
it  rides  the  bow  on  the  flake.  The  notches 
in  all  arrows  should  be  y$  of  an  inch  deep 
and  uniform  in  width.  They  should  so  fit 
the  bow  string  as  to  support  the  weight  of  the 
arrow  when  placed  on  the  string  and  sus- 
pended therefrom,  but  the  string  should  be 
made  to  fit  the  notch  instead  of  attempting 
to  make  the  notch  fit  the  string. 

The  pile  or  arrowhead  is  a  thimble  made  of 
steel  pi  of  an  inch  long.  They  may  be 
secured  from  E.  I.  Horsman  &  Company  or 
of  Mr.  James  Duff,  manufacturer  of  archery 
tackle,  or  possibly  from  Abercrombie  &  Fitch 
of  New  York,  who  I  understand  have  added 
archery  tackle  to  their  stock.     I  have  never 

260  American  Archery 

been  able  to  secure  a  satisfactory  pile.  I 
make  my  own,  using  cylindrical  sections  of 
the  required  length  cut  from  Shelby  steel 
tubing.  A  pile  which  is  a  section  of  a  true 
cylinder  is  not  good;  it  opens  a  hole  in  the 
target  the  full  size  of  the  shaft  and  permits 
the  arrow  to  pass  entirely  through  the  target, 
especially  if  the  target  be  an  old  one.  The 
pile  should  be  %2  of  an  inch  less  in  diameter 
at  the  front  end  than  at  the  back.  This 
result  is  secured  by  swedging,  which  may  be 
done. without  heating  the  tube.  The  swedge 
is  made  by  boring  a  hole  of  the  required  size 
in  a  block  of  steel  or  brass,  then  reaming  it 
with  a  tapered  reamer.  The  mandrel  is 
hardened  steel  of  the  size  and  shape  which 
suggests  itself  from  requirements.  Small 
conical  shaped  points  are  turned  from  steel 
(cold-rolled  shafting  works  fine);  a  shoulder 
is  turned  on  the  end  of  the  cap  so  that  it 
sets  into  the  shell  %2  of  an  inch  and  should- 
ers up  against  the  end  of  the  shell.  The  cap 
and  the  shell  are  then  soldered  together. 
Brazing  is  better  but  unnecessary.  In  solder- 
ing, abandon  the  different  acid  solutions. 
Use  any  good  soldering  paste,  that  may  be 
secured  from  electrical  supply  dealers.     The 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  261 

caps  and  the  shells  must  be  carefully  tinned 
before  attempting  to  solder. 

The  pile  is  fitted  to  the  end  of  the  shaft 
according  to  the  tools  and  conveniences  at 
hand.  The  best  way  is  with  the  assistance 
of  a  hollow  spindle  lathe,  but  great  care 
should  be  taken  to  see  that  the  pile  is  perfectly 
"stopped;"  that  is,  the  end  of  the  shaft 
should  come  in  contact  with  the  cap  of  the 
pile  and  the  shoulder  of  the  shaft  should  meet 
the  end  of  the  shell,  when  the  pile  is  driven 
home.  The  pile  can  be  retained  in  position 
by  glue  applied  to  the  shaft,  care  being  taken 
to  not  use  too  much,  otherwise  the  pile  cannot 
be  driven  to  its  proper  place.  If  it  becomes 
necessary  to  remove  the  pile  apply  a  flame 
for  a  short  period.  The  gas  formed  by  the 
heated  glue  will  cause  the  pile  to  detach  itself. 

The  shaft  is  again  placed  in  the  grooved 
board  and  the  point  of  union  between  the 
footing  and  the  pile  is  dressed  with  a  mill-cut 
file,  after  which  the  point  of  the  pile  is  dressed 
on  the  emery  wheel. 

At  this  point  I  wish  to  suggest  that  a  tool 
of  great  convenience  and  utility  can  be  easily 
made  in  the  form  of  a  wooden  device  carrying 
a  handle  like  a  plane  which  will  clamp  flat 

262  American  Archery 

files  in  such  position  as  they  may  be  used  in 
the  same  manner  as  a  plane. 

After  all  the  shafts  have  been  brought  to 
the  condition  now  referred  to  they  are  weighed 
upon  a  jeweler's  balance  scale  until  the 
lightest  is  discovered.  That  one  should  be 
then  worked  down  to  the  desired  weight  and 
placed  in  the  scales  and  all  other  shafts 
brought  to  equal  weight.  This  process  of 
reduction  and  weighing  out  is  as  tedious  as 
it  is  important  and  may  be  performed  with 
files,  steel  wool  and  varying  grades  of  sand 
paper.  The  acme  of  finish  may  be  secured  by 
the  use  of  glasspaper,  which  can  be  obtained 
from  dealers  in  musical  instruments  and 
violin  makers'  supplies.  The  glasspaper  leaves 
a  finish  that  cannot  be  approached  by  the 
use  of  abrasive  agents  such  as  sand  or  emery 
paper,  or  steel  wool. 

Immediately  after  being  brought  to  weight 
and  before  they  have  had  opportunity  to 
accumulate  moisture  the  shafts  should  be 
varnished  from  the  pile  to  a  point  within  4^ 
inches  of  the  extreme  nock  end.  The  alcohol 
varnishes,  such  as  shellac  are  tabooed  and 
should  be  avoided.  They  are  worse  than  use- 
less.   Spar  varnish,  any  of  the  varnishes  used 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  263 

on  bamboo  fishing  rods,  or  a  good  grade  of 
rubbing  varnish,  which  may  be  secured  from 
any  first-class  carriage  painter,  may  be  used, 
but  the  best  is  what  is  known  under  the 
trade  name  of  "chinamel"  made  by  the  Ohio 
Varnish  Company.  The  first  coat  should  be 
thinned  with  turpentine.  The  varnish  used 
must  fulfill  many  requirements.  It  must 
cling  to  a  highly  polished  surface,  must  not 
crack  under  changing  weather  conditions, 
must  respond  to  treatment  with  steel  wool 
and  other  abrasives  without  gumming  or 
balling,  and  at  the  same  time  must  set  with 
sufficient  hardness  to  prevent  becoming  soft 
under  the  influence  of  frictional  heat  as  the 
arrow  passes  into  the  target. 

After  receiving  the  initial  coat  of  thin 
varnish  the  shafts  are  kept  in  a  dry  place  for 
24  hours  when  they  again  go  through  the 
weighing  out  process,  in  which  they  are  again 
rubbed  down  with  the  finest  grade  of  steel 
wool.  No  sand  paper  should  be  used;  the 
dust  will  fill  depressions  and  appear  under 
the  succeeding  coats  of  varnish.  That  por- 
tion of  the  shaft  which  has  not  been  varnished 
and  which  is  called  the  "shaftment"  is  then 
sized  with  extremely  thin  glue  and  permitted 

264  American  Archery 

to  dry  6  hours.  The  application  of  the  thin 
glue  will  raise  the  grain,  which  must  be 
removed  by  a  very  light  application  of  the 
fine  steel  wool.  In  applying  the  size,  care 
should  be  taken  to  not  cover  any  of  the 
varnished  portion  of  the  shaft.  If  this  occurs 
the  succeeding  coats  of  varnish  will  flake  off. 
The  purpose  of  the  size  will  be  very  apparent 
when  the  operation  of  feathering  the  shaft 
is  attempted.  Without  it  the  bare  wood  of 
the  shaft  will  rob  the  feather  of  its  glue  and 
in  addition  to  this  the  glue  of  the  feather  will 
not  take  hold  of  the  bare  wood  instantly  as 
it  will  if  the  size  is  used. 

The  fledging  or  feathering  of  an  arrow, 
requiring  as  it  does  the  securing,  selection, 
cutting  and  attaching  of  the  feather,  con- 
stitutes the  most  difficult  part  of  arrow 
making,  and  as  frequently  remarked  by  my 
good  friend  Challiss,  is  not  a  matter  of  skill 
but  is  an  art. 

Preeminent  among  feathers  for  a  target 
arrow  are  those  of  the  peacock,  but  they  are 
almost  impossible  to  secure.  Next  comes 
that  of  the  domestic  turkey.  While  the  white 
turkey  feather  will  not  stand  as  much  abuse 
as  the  gray,  I  prefer  it  because  of  its  greater 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  265 

beauty  and  the  fact  that  it  can  be  dyed  to 
any  desired  color.  In  attempting  to  dye 
feathers  great  care  should  be  taken.  If  the 
solution  is  too  hot  it  will  ruin  the  feather.  I 
might  say  that  I  ruin  two  of  every  three 
feathers  I  attempt  to  dye.  Any  commercial 
dye  may  be  used. 

What  are  known  on  the  market  as  primary 
feathers  or  "pointers"  are  selected,  care  being 
taken  not  to  select  the  feathers  from  opposite 
wings  of  the  bird.  They  should  also  be 
selected  with  reference  to  their  size  and 
texture  and  if  the  stock  on  hand  will  permit, 
the  portion  used  for  fledging  should  come 
from  the  same  part  of  the  feather;  that  is, 
the  three  vanes  used  on  an  arrow  should  be 
taken  from  three  separate  feathers  but  from 
the  same  location  for  the  reason  that  a  prim- 
ary feather  is  coarser  and  stiffer  near  its 
middle  than  at  either  end.  Each  wing  on  an 
arrow  should  be  of  precisely  the  same  size, 
texture,  weight  and  strength.  A  heavy  vane 
and  two  light  ones  will  have  the  same  effect 
upon  the  flight  of  an  arrow  as  would  a  large 
one  and  two  small  ones. 

Feathers  become  seasoned  and  exceedingly 
tough  and  difficult  to  work  and  at  a  certain 

266  American  Archery 

stage  of  the  preparation  must  be  rendered 
tractable  by  the  application  of  moisture  in 
some  form  referred  to  later.  All  tools  used 
in  preparing  the  feather  must  be  sharp,  and 
by  this  I  do  not  mean  approximately  sharp. 
The  knife  that  would  not  comfortably  shave 
the  user  is  not  sharp  enough  for  this  purpose, 
and  the  tools  must  be  given  constant  atten- 
tion that  they  may  not  become  dull.  The 
feathers  for  a  target  arrow  should  be  cut  and 
not  stripped  from  the  bone.  Using  stripped 
feathers  is  but  a  makeshift  and  indicates 
inattention  to  the  details  so  essential  to  final 
success.  After  the  feather  is  selected  it 
should  be  ripped  lengthwise  through  the 
groove  in  the  nether  side  of  the  bone.  If 
the  vanes  are  to  be  of  the  ordinary  balloon 
shape  they  should  be  2^  inches  long  and 
%  of  an  inch  high  at  the  highest  point. 
After  the  feather  has  been  ripped  the  wings 
may  be  cut  from  the  broad  side  by  a  die  made 
of  sheet  steel,  the  feather  being  placed  on  a 
maple  block  and  the  die  struck  with  a  light 
hammer,  care  being  taken  not  to  injure  the 
bone.  Three  wings  may  be  secured  from  one 
feather  and  after  being  stamped  out  there 
will   be   a    space   between   each   wing,    as    it 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  267 

adheres  to  the  bone,  of  about  }4  inch.  The 
die  mentioned  may  be  made  from  an  old 
handsaw  blade  or  a  cabinet  maker's  scraper, 
which  can  be  bent  into  shape  without  the 
application  of  heat.  It  is  then  sharpened  on 
the  emery  wheel  to  a  chisel  edge. 

The  vanes  as  stamped  are  then  separated 
by  c'utting  the  bone  so  as  to  leave  y&  of  an 
inch  extending  beyond  each  end  of  the  wing. 
It  will  now  be  noticed  that  while  the  wing 
is  in  its  final  shape  there  is  far  too  much  bone 
attached  to  it  and  this  excess  of  bone  for 
convenience  is  described  as  follows:  That 
portion  which  lies  in  the  same  plane  with  the 
cane  is  "A;"  that  portion  which  lies  in  a 
plane  at  right  angles  to  that  of  the  vane  is 
"B."  The  surplus  at  "B"  is  removed  by 
being  held  in  a  clamp  and  cut  with  the  blade 
of  a  safety  razor.  The  clamp  is  in  the  form 
of  an  ordinary  butt  hinge  having  three  leaves 
and  is  made  preferably  of  aluminum  to  avoid 
dulling  the  knife.  The  two  outside  leaves  are 
of  strong  metal,  reinforced  with  wood  to 
prevent  bending  or  giving  under  the  strain. 
The  middle  leaf  is  made  of  very  thin  alum- 
inum or  brass  about  36  gauge.  The  feather  as 
stamped  is  placed  in  the  clamp  with  the  vane 

268  American  Archery 

firmly  held  between  the  middle  leaf  and  one 
of  the  outer  leaves  of  the  clamp.  The  safety 
razor  blade  is  then  inserted  between  the 
middle  leaf  and  the  other  outside  leaf  of  the 
clamp  in  such  manner  that  the  middle  leaf 
lies  between  the  blade  and  the  vane  of  the 
feather.  A  single  stroke  of  the  blade  suffices 
to  remove  the  surplus  bone  at  "B"  and  the 
vane  of  the  feather  is  protected,  by  the  inter- 
vening middle  leaf,  from  damage  during  the 
operation.  The  result  is  that  the  surplus 
bone  left  at  "B"  will  be  equal  to  the  thickness 
of  the  middle  leaf  in  the  hinged  clamp.  There 
is  still  far  too  much  bone  at  "A,"  the  removal 
of  which  gives  no  little  trouble.  The  following 
plan  is  the  result  of  many  experiments  both 
in  method  and  with  mechanical  devices. 

As  before  stated,  the  feather  becomes 
seasoned  and  tough  and  at  this  stage  it  is 
necessary  to  soften  the  bone  by  the  applica- 
tion of  moisture.  In  fact,  that  may  be  done 
before  removing  the  surplus  at  "B"  but  it  is 
not  so  essential.  A  shallow  pan  is  so  arranged 
over  the  gas  flame  that  water  placed  therein 
will  be  slowly  evaporated.  The  pan  has  a 
cover  of  galvanized  wire  screen.  A  piece  of 
heavy  cloth  (an  old  bath  towel  is  good)   is 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  269 

wrung  out  of  hot  water  and  then  laid  on  top 
of  the  screen  in  such  manner  that  the  vanes 
as  stamped  out  may  be  arranged  on  top  of 
the  cloth  and  then  covered  with  a  fold  of  the 
same  cloth.  The  heat  and  moisture  from  the 
cloth,  to  which  is  added  the  heat  and  vapor 
from  the  evaporating  water,  will  in  10  or  15 
minutes  render  the  feathers  soft  and  pliable. 
As  needed,  they  are  removed  from  the  steam 
bath,  care  being  taken  to  keep  those  not  in 
use  covered  with  the  extra  fold  of  the  cloth. 
One  vane  is  removed  from  the  steam  bath  and 
laid  upon  a  smooth,  soft  pine  board,  cross- 
wise of  the  grain  of  the  board.  Lack  of 
attention  to  this  apparently  small  detail 
will  absolutely  baffle  any  attempt  to  cut  the 
bone  of  the  feather  "A,"  which  is  the  desid- 
eratum. The  vane  is  held  on  the  pine  block 
with  a  straight  edge  4  inches  long,  $/&  of  an 
inch  thick  and  1%  inches  wide,  brought  to 
a  beveled  edge  in  the  form  of  an  ordinary 
ruler.  The  sole  purpose  of  the  straight  edge 
is  for  the  purpose  of  holding  the  vane  firmly 
in  position  while  being  cut.  The  knife  does 
not  touch  the  straight  edge  during  the 
process  of  cutting.  The  straight  edge  is 
placed  on  the  vane  and  the  straight  line  of 

270  American  Archery 

the  bone  left  in  removing  the  surplus  at  "B" 
is  pressed  firmly  and  accurately  against  the 
straight  edge  and  the  surplus  bone  at  "A" 
is  removed  by  a  single  stroke  of  the  knife 
guided  only  by  the  eye.  The  best  knife  for 
this  purpose  is  made  from  an  old-fashioned 
razor  blade  ^4  of  an  inch  wide,  the  point  of 
which  has  been  left  at  right  angles  and  not 
rounded  and  to  which  blade  has  been  affixed 
securely  and  firmly  a  wooden  handle  according 
to  the  individual  desire  of  the  fletcher.  In 
operation,  the  point  of  the  blade  passes 
through  the  bone  and  into  the  soft  pine 
board  and  assists  in  guiding  the  knife.  It  will 
therefore  be  readily  seen  that  if  the  cut  were 
made  with  the  grain  of  the  pine  board  the 
knife  would  follow  the  grain  of  the  wood  and 
be  deflected.  It  is  possible  to  make  this  last 
and  most  important  cut  by  several  successive 
strokes  of  the  knife  but  the  result  is  never  so 
satisfactory.  It  should  be  done  at  a  single 
stroke.  Should  the  result  be  other  than  a 
perfectly  true  line  the  following  makeshift 
may  be  resorted  to.  Replace  the  vane  in  the 
hinge  clamp,  bring  the  surface  of  the  bone  at 
"A"  to  a  true  line  by  filing  it  with  a  file 
made  by  gluing  a  strip  of  sharp  sand  paper 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  271 

(00  grade)  on  a  stick  8  or  9  inches  long  and 
yi  of  an  inch  square.  I  have  heard  of  arrow 
makers  who  instead  of  cutting  their  feathers 
remove  the  surplus  bone  by  holding  the  vane 
in  a  clamp  and  planing  off  the  surplus  with 
a  tiny  violin  maker's  plane.  I  have  tried  it 
without  the  slightest  degree  of  success.  After 
the  final  cut  the  vane  is  restored  to  the  vapor 
bath  where  it  remains  until  the  balance  of  the 
vanes  receive  the  finishing  cut. 

There  are  numerous  methods  of  gluing  the 
vane  to  the  shaft.  One  is  by  temporarily 
wrapping  them  on  with  thread.  This  is  the 
poorest  possible  method  and  unworkmanlike. 
Another  way  is  by  placing  the  vane  between 
the  leaves  of  a  clamp  such  as  would  be 
formed  by  an  ordinary  butt  hinge  and  press- 
ing the  glue-covered  surface  of  the  bone 
against  the  shaft.  This  requires  too  much 
manipulation,  is  uncertain  in  adhesive  results 
and  clumsy  to  a  degree.  I  have  a  mechanical 
device  made  by  myself  which  will  feather  any 
arrow  perfectly  but  any  mechanical  device 
requires  so  many  different  manipulations  that 
it  appeals  only  to  those  who  lack  the  skill 
required  to  do  the  work  properly  without 
mechanical    aids.      The    best    plan    for    the 

272  American  Archery 

skilled  workman  is  to  simply  pick  up  the 
feather,  apply  glue  to  the  contact  surface 
of  the  bone,  and  stick  it  in  position,  but  the 
knack  only  comes  with  long,  patient  practice 
and  is  fully  as  difficult  as  is  the  foregoing 
statement  simple.  For  the  benefit  of  advanced 
arrow  makers,  I  beg  to  state,  however,  that 
it  is  the  best  way  to  feather  arrows,  and 
from  every  viewpoint  it  is  the  best.  It 
requires  no  preparatory  manipulation  of  the 
feather,  the  result  is  satisfying,  and  operation 
brief.  I  might  say  that  in  feathering  my  first 
arrows  I  resorted  to  the  plan  of  wrapping 
them  on  with  thread  which  held  them  in 
position  while  the  glue  dried.  It  required  2 
hours  to  feather  a  single  arrow  and  the  result 
was  anything  but  satisfactory.  Years  after- 
ward on  one  occasion,  by  following  the  plan 
of  simply  "sticking  them  on,"  I  feathered  an 
even  dozen  arrows  in  thirteen  minutes. 

For  the  purpose  of  this  article  and  of  those 
for  whose  benefit  it  is  written,  I  assert  the 
following  method  of  attaching  the  feathers 
to  the  shaft  to  be  the  best.  If  instructions 
have  been  followed  to  date  the  bone  of  the 
wing  will  extend  at  right  angles  from  the  vane 
about  %o  of  an  inch  and  the  thickness  of  the 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  273 

bone  at  the  point  of  contact  with  the  shaft 
described  as  "A,"  will  be  about  the  same. 
The  bone  will  extend  beyond  each  end  of 
the  vane  }i  of  an  inch.  A  supply  of  bead- 
headed  steel  pins  about  1%  inches  in  length 
should  be  secured.  One  pin  is  passed  through 
the  extension  of  the  bone  at  the  nock  end  of 
the  vane,  the  point  of  the  pin  barely  passing 
through  the  bone.  Another  pin  is  passed 
te  of  an  inch  through  the  extension  of  bone 
on  the  opposite  or  pile  end  of  the  vane,  but 
instead  of  being  at  right  angles  with  the 
axis  of  the  bone  as  is  the  first  pin,  it  is  placed 
at  an  angle  of  about  45  degrees,  slanting 
toward  the  nock  end  of  the  vane.  The  glue 
is  then  applied  in  small  quantities  to  the 
surface  of  the  bone  which  will  rest  upon  the 
shaft,  in  doing  which  a  small  sliver  of  wood 
serves  the  purpose  better  than  a  brush.  The 
cock  feather,  being  the  one  which  is  placed 
at  right  angles  with  the  string  notch,  is  the 
first  to  be  applied  and  so  placed  that  the 
distance  between  the  extreme  nock  end  of 
the  shaft  and  the  end  of  the  vane  is  1)4 
inches.  While  held  in  that  position  pin 
number  1  is  pressed  home.  This  will  neces- 
sitate pressing  the  pin  into  the  fibre  nock, 

274  American  Archery 

but  that  may  be  readily  done.  Pin  number  2, 
which  has  been  hanging  in  the  loose  end  of 
the  bone,  is  than  grasped,  the  feather  drawn 
taut  and  the  point  of  pin  number  2,  which 
protrudes  through  the  bone  ^  of  an  inch, 
is  pressed  slightly  into  the  shaft,  being  careful 
still  to  retain  the  45  degree  angle.  When  the 
footing  has  been  thus  secured,  pin  number  2  is 
brought  to  a  position  at  right  angles  with 
the  axis  of  the  shaft  and  pressed  home.  It 
will  be  noted  that  this  operation  secures  a 
leverage  which  stretches  the  bone  of  the 
feather  tight  against  the  shaft  and  forces 
out  any  surplus  glue.  If  the  work  is  carefully 
performed  there  will  be  no  surplus  glue.  The 
other  two  feathers  are  placed  on  the  shaft 
in  the  same  manner,  being  careful  to  accur- 
ately divide  the  total  circumference  of  the 
shaft  into  three  equal  parts.  This  division 
may  be  made  with  the  aid  of  instruments, 
laying  off  the  different  points  of  contact, 
but  that  is  unnecessary  labor.  Practice  will 
enable  the  workman  to  space  those  distances 
instantly  by  the  eye  and  so  accurately  that 
they  will  not  vary  the  distance  of  one  of  the 
holes  made  by  the  pin  point.  One  hour  is 
sufficient  time  to  permit  the  drying  of  the 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  275 

glue,  after  which  the  pins  are  removed,  the 
bone  extension  at  the  nock  end  is  cut  square, 
and  the  bone  extension  at  the  other  end  is 
trimmed  to  a  feather  edge  with  the  feather 

The  very  best  glue  used  for  attaching  the 
feathers  is  made  of  equal  parts  of  the  best 
commercial  glue  and  Russian  isinglass.  Do 
not  confuse  isinglass  with  mica.  The  isin- 
glass, after  being  cut  with  shears  into  small 
bits,  is  soaked  for  two  days  in  sufficient  water 
to  cover  it,  together  with  the  commercial 
glue,  to  which  should  be  added  brandy, 
quantity  sufficient.  It  is  then  brought  to  a 
boil  in  an  ordinary  glue  pot  in  a  water  bath. 
Brandy  must  be  added  from  time  to  time  as 
needed  and  small  quantities  of  the  glue 
cooked  up  as  needed.  Notwithstanding  the 
use  of  brandy  the  glue  ferments  within  a  few 
days  and  gives  off  a  very  offensive  odor.  The 
Russian  isinglass  costs  from  40c  to  60c  an 
ounce  and  may  be  secured  from  the  large 
drug  houses.  It  is,  however,  not  expensive 
because  of  the  great  bulk  in  a  given  weight. 

The  entire  arrow  is  next  varnished  from 
nock  to  pile  with  thin  varnish,  being  careful 
to  lay  the  varnish  well  over  the  glue  joint 

276  American  Archery 

formed  by  the  union  of  the  feather  and  shaft 
but  keep  it  from  coming  into  contact  with 
the  vane  of  the  feather.  If  it  does,  the 
varnish  will  creep  up  the  vanes,  make  them 
stiff  and  mar  the  looks.  After  this  coat  of 
varnish  has  thoroughly  dried  it  is  again  cut 
down  with  the  fine  steel  wool;  the  uniform 
weight  of  the  arrows  being  maintained.  The 
shaftment,  being  the  space  between  a  point 
■jf  of  an  inch  from  the  extreme  nock  end 
to  a  point  4^4  inches  from  the  extreme  nock 
end  is  then  painted  any  desired  color,  in  doing 
which  the  paint  is  laid  up,  on  and  over  the 
bone  of  the  feather  but  not  permitted  to  touch 
the  vane.  This  is  best  done  with  a  small 
round  brush  in  which  the  bristles  are  about  a 
half  inch  long,  ending  in  a  point.  The  crest 
is  then  painted  on,  using  one  wide  band  and 
several  narrow. ones  or  two  or  more  wide  ones, 
lined  with  a  color  different  from  any  used  in 
the  crest.  The  lining  is  best  done  in  a  lathe 
but  can  be  accomplished  by  laying  the  arrow 
in  a  notch  cut  in  the  work  bench  and  twirling 
it  with  one  hand  while  applying  the  paint 
lines  with  the  other.  For  lining,  I  find  a 
very  fine  pointed  brush  the  easiest  to  handle. 
The  band  nearest  the  nock  end   is   about  $g 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  277 

of  an  inch  wide,  leaving  the  final  ty$  inch  of 
the  nock  end  bare  of  paint.  The  appearance 
is,  however,  fully  preserved  by  the  contrast 
between  the  wood  of  the  shaft  and  the  red 
fiber  nock. 

After  the  paint  has  dried  the  entire  arrow 
is  again  varnished  with  a  coat  of  varnish 
that  has  not  been  thinned,  and  after  that  has 
dried  the  arrow  is  again  rubbed  down  with 
the  fine  steel  wool  and  polished  with  a  dry 
woolen  cloth. 

Hunting  arrows  are  made  of  hickory  % 
of  an  inch  in  diameter  and  28  inches  long.  It 
is  not  necessary  to  foot  them  nor  to  reinforce 
the  string  notch  with  a  nock.  The  feathers 
are  stripped  from  the  bone  instead  of  being 
cut.  Unless  properly  stripped,  small  particles 
of  pith  will  adhere  to  the  skin  of  bone  that 
remains  attached  to  the  vane.  To  avoid 
this,  take  the  feather  just  as  it  leaves  the 
bird,  grasp  it  at  the  outer  or  vane  end  with 
thumb  and  finger  of  left  hand,  holding  the 
feather  in  a  vertical  position.  With  the  thumb 
and  finger  of  the  right  hand  tear  the  vane 
loose  from  the  bone  near  the  vane  end  and 
immediately  turn  the  torn  part  downward 
making  and  maintaining  a   sharp  angle  be- 

278  American  Archery 

tween  the  torn  part  of  the  vane  and  the  bone 
of  the  feather,  then  pull  downward;  the  vane 
will  strip  off  the  entire  length  of  the  feather 
and  will  come  away  clean.  If  too  much  of  the 
bone-skin  comes  off  with  the  vane,  it  may  be 
trimmed  with  the  shears.  The  vanes  of  a 
hunting  arrow  are  4  inches  long  and  y&  of 
an  inch  high.  The  big  softer  feathers  of  the 
wing  yield  better  vanes  than  do  the  primary 
or  pointers.  The  vanes  are  attached  in  like 
manner  as  to  a  target  arrow  but  if  placed 
with  a  slight  twist  or  spiral  the  flight  of  the 
arrow  will  probably  be  improved  50  per  cent. 
Indeed  I  feather  all  my  target  arrows  with 
the  same  twist  or  spiral  suggested  for  hunting 
arrows.  If  the  pile  end  of  the  vane  is  placed 
%2  of  an  inch  out  of  line  with  the  axis  of 
the  shaft  there  will  be  ample  twist  to  the 
vane.  In  fledging  an  arrow  with  spiral  or 
twist  wings,  care  must  be  taken  to  so  place 
them  that  the  pressure  of  the  air  on  the  vanes 
while  in  flight  will  come  against  what  would 
be  the  nether  side  of  the  feather  when  in  the 
wing  of  the  bird,  as  the  vane  of  a  feather  is 
very  stiff  in  that  direction  while  in  the  other 
it  is  limber. 
Hunting  arrows  are  headed   according  to 

Notes  on  Arrow  Making  279 

the  use  intended.  Babbitt  headed  blunt 
arrows  are  used  in  shooting  at  birds  and  small 
game  in  trees  and  sharp  steel  bladed  ones  for 
large  game  and  game  on  the  ground.  The 
weight  of  hunting  arrows  should  be  as  nearly 
uniform  as  practicable,  but  nothing  like  the 
great  care  in  this  respect  is  required  as  in  the 
target  arrow.  They  should  be  painted  be- 
tween the  feathers  and  varnished  to  exclude 
moisture  from  shaft  and  vane.  White  feathers 
and  a  red  shaftment  have  saved  from  oblivion 
many  an  honest  shaft. 

280  American  Archery 

The  Composite  Bow 
By  Samuel  G.  McMeen 

FOR  long  distance  shooting,  irrespective  of 
the  hitting  of  a  mark,  the  bow  having 
most  to  its  credit  is  that  made  and  used  by 
the  Turks.  Three  features  distinguish  such 
a  bow  from  the  English  longbow:  that  it  is 
shorter,  that  it  is  strongly  reflexed,  (being  in 
this  regard  the  prototype  of  the  Cupid's 
bow)  and  that  it  is  composite,  being  made  of 
wood,  horn  and  sinew  or  an  equivalent  of  the 

Elsewhere  in  this  book  are  told  the  details 
of  the  shooting  of  these  bows.  Mahmoud 
Effendi,  a  Turk,  in  1795  shot  a  Turkish  arrow 
482  yards  from  a  Turkish  composite  bow. 
Ingo  Simon,  an  Englishman,  in  1913,  at  Le 
Toquet,  France,  shot  an  arrow  459  yards,  8 
inches  from  a  composite  Turkish  bow.  No 
English  longbow  has  approached  these  dis- 
tances. The  difference  is  in  the  bow  and  not 
in  any  secret  of  its  use. 

The  Composite  Bow  281 

The  bow  used  by  Ingo  Simon  is  said  to 
have  been  made  in  1835,  and  that  the  secret 
of  the  making  has  been  lost.  It  is  not  known 
that  a  successful  composite,  reflexed,  flight- 
shooting  bow  ever  was  made  by  a  man  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  race  before  the  summer  of  191 7. 

In  that  year,  Dr.  Saxton  T.  Pope,  a  surgeon 
of  San  Francisco,  made  such  a  weapon,  and 
the  editors  are  indebted  to  him  for  the  details 
on  which   the  following  description  is  based. 

The  materials  are  of  vegetable  and  animal 
origin;  that  is,  wood,  horn,  rawhide  and  cat- 
gut. These  materials  are  assembled  so  that 
all  of  them  are  present  throughout  the  length 
of  the  bow.  The  central  "backbone"  is  of 
white  hickory;  it  is  slightly  oval  in  cross- 
section;  length,  fifty-three  inches,  width,  one 
and  a  half  inches  and  thickness  five-sixteenths 
inch.  The  horn  portion  is  built  up  of  strips, 
and  forms  the  belly  of  the  bow.  The  hickory 
is  backed  by  the  rawhide  and  catgut,  and  the 
whole  is  enclosed  in  more  rawhide. 

These  details  will  appear  more  clearly  by 
following  the  steps  taken  by  Dr.  Pope  in 
the  actual  making  of  the  bow. 

From  the  longest  cow-horns  obtainable,  he 
cut  strips  half  an  inch  wide,  a  quarter  of  an 

282  American  Archery 

inch  thick,  and  as  long  as  possible,  he  mitred 
across  the  half-inch  dimension,  and  fitted  the 
strips  together  in  three  parallel  columns  on 
the  hickory  base.  Care  was  taken  to  "break 
joints"  in  this  arrangement.  The  horn  strips 
were  softened  in  hot  water  at  the  time  of 
application  to  the  base.  Organ  glue  was 
used  for  the  attachment. 

At  this  point,  the  ends  of  the  bow  were 
given  the  reflex;  that  is,  the  ends  of  the  wood 
and  horn  bend  backward,  the  horn  being  on 
the  convex  side.  Glue  applied  plentifully, 
heavy  binding  with  strong  twine,  supple- 
mented by  many  clamps. 

After  a  week's  drying,  the  clamps  and 
twine  were  removed  and  the  horn  rasped  into 
shape,  giving  it  a  general  thickness  of  a 
quarter  of  an  inch,  but  thickest  in  the  mid- 
limbs.  Then  the  following  sequence:  a 
backing  of  thin  rawhide  attached  by  liquid 
glue;  drying;  a  layer  of  one  hundred  strands 
of  No.  3  catgut  laid  side  by  side  on  the  raw- 
hide in  liquid  glue;  these  bound  on  by  a  gauze 
bandage;  drying;  removal  of  bandage;  scrap- 
ing; shaping;  another  layer  of  rawhide  over 
the  parallel  strands  of  catgut. 

The  Composite  Bow  283 

After  still  more  drying,  the  bow  now  was 
given  horn  nocks  and  these  provided  with 
lateral  notches  to  keep  the  string  from  slip- 
ping off  of  the  strongly  bent  extremities  when 
the  bow  should  be  fully  drawn. 

More  drying;  filing  the  horn  side  to  sym- 
metrical and  supposedly  proper  proportions; 
binding  again  with  cord  and  testing  the  curve 
and  weight;  to  make  these  adjustments  all 
the  reduction  was  done  upon  the  horn;  horn 
ears  were  set  on  the  belly  of  the  bow  three 
inches  from  the  tips. 

All  now  was  covered  with  rawhide.  This 
was  softened  in  warm  water  and  attached  by 
organ  glue;  bandaged;  dried,  unbandaged; 
scraped;  sand  papered;  wrappings  of  linen 
thread  at  a  few  places  symmetrically  chosen 
in  each  limb  (to  safeguard  against  the  parts 
separating);  a  handle  of  leather  was  applied, 
a  finish  of  shellac  and  oil;  at  this  point  the 
bow  was  well  dried. 

The  string  is  of  Pagenstecher  thread,  a 
material  used  by  surgeons,  laid  up  with  double 
loops  after  the  manner  of  Maxson  as  elsewhere 
described  in  this  book,  served  not  only  at  the 
nocking  point  but  at  the  points  where  the 
string  engages  the  ears  mentioned  as  being 

284  American  Archery 

placed  three  inches  from  the  tips.  The  pur- 
pose of  these  ears  is  not,  as  some  authors 
seem  to  think,  to  assist  in  "bracing"  the  bow, 
but  to  afford  for  the  string  a  fulcrum  or  resting 
spot  to  insure  a  clear  release.  Otherwise  the 
string  would  buzz  on  the  reversed  outer  limb. 
In  other  words,  the  formation  is  such  as  to 
shorten  the  chord  of  the  arc  abruptly,  giving 
a  quick  vibration  to  the  string. 

At  the  time  of  this  writing  this  first  Anglo- 
Saxon-built  composite  flight-shooting  Turk- 
ish-type bow  has  not  seasoned  to  a  point  to 
give  final  account  of  its  powers.  In  prelim- 
inary trials,  however,  it  has  demonstrated 
great  driving  ability.  One  of  its  earliest 
shots  in  trial  was  but  ten  yards  short  of  the 
present  American  flight-shot  record.  What 
it  yet  shall  do  will  be  interesting  to  be  seen. 
The  details  will  appear  in  the  succeeding 
editions  of  this  book. 

Glossary  285 



By  Dr.  Robert  P.  Elmer 

Allowance.  Change  in  aim  to  compensate  for 

Arbalist.     A  crossbow. 

Armguard.  A  piece  of  leather  or  other  stiff 
material  worn  on  the  left  forearm  to 
protect  it  from  injury  by  the  bowstring. 
Also  called  Bracer. 

Arrow  horn.  A  V-shaped  piece  of  horn,  fibre 
or  similar  material  inserted  in  the  poster- 
ior end  of  an  arrow  and  containing  the 
nock.  Modern  arrows  are  sometimes 
fitted  with  an  aluminum  ferrule  to  which 
the  name  may  probably  be  extended. 
(See  Nock  j.) 

Arrow  plate.  A  thin  piece  of  hard  material 
set  in  the  bow,  where  it  is  crossed  by 
the  arrow,  to  prevent  wear. 

Arrowsmith.     A  fletcher. 

Arrow  stave.  A  slender  rod  of  wood  ready 
for  further  shaping  to  form  a  stele. 

286  American  Archery 

Artillery.     A  word  originally  meaning  bows 

and  arrows. 
Archer's  rood.     A  measure  of  j%  yards. 
Ascham  (as-kam).     I.    A  tall,  narrow  cabinet 

for  bows,  arrows  and  other  tackle. 

2.   A  portable  case  for  bows  and  arrows. 
Back.     i.   The  flat  side  of  a  bow. 

2.    To   glue    a    strip    of   wood    or   other 

elastic  material  to  the  back  of  the  self 

Backed  bow.     A  bow  whose  back  and  belly 

are    of    different    strips    of   wood    glued 

together.    Rawhide  or  other  animal  tissue 

is  sometimes  used  for  backing. 
Backing.    Material  from  which  the  back  of  a 

backed  bow  is  made. 
Balloon  feather.     A  vane  of  parabolic  outline. 
Barrelled  arrow.     An  arrow  that  is  larger  in 

the  middle  than  at  the  ends. 
Bass.     The  straw  back  of  a  target. 
Belly.     The  round  side  of  a  bow. 
Bend.     I.   To  string  a  bow,  not  to  draw  it. 

2.   The  space  between  the  bent  bow  and 

its  string. 
Bobtailed  arrow.     An  arrow  whose  shaft  is  a 

cone  with  the  base  at  the  pile. 

Glossary  287 

Bolt.     A  short,  thick  arrow  used  in  a  cross- 
Bow-arm.     The  arm  that  supports  the  bow. 
Bow-hand.     The  hand  that  holds  the  bow. 
Bowman.     An  archer. 
Bow  stave.     See  Stave. 
Bowyer.     A  maker  of  bows. 
Brace.     To  bend  a  bow. 
Bracer.     An  armguard. 

Butt.  An  artificial  embankment  of  sod  or 
earth  against  which  a  target  or  prick  is 

Cast.  1.  The  coefficients  of  resilience  of  a 

2.  The  distance  a  given  bow  can  shoot. 

3.  A  tilt  in  the  back  of  a  bow  out  of  the 
perpendicular  to  the  plane  passing 
through  the  string  and  the  longitudinal 
center  of  the  bow. 

4.  Any  lateral  warping  of  a  bow. 

Chested  arrow.  An  arrow  whose  shaft  is  a 
cone  with  the  base  at  the  nock. 

Chrysal  (kris-al).  A  transverse  fault  in  the 
belly  of  a  bow  caused  by  compression. 
Also  called  Pinch. 

288  American  Archery 

Cloth  yard.  A  measure  of  probably  27 

Clout.  1.  A  small  cloth  or  other  white 
object  placed  on  the  ground  as  a  mark  in 
long  distance  shooting.  The  modern 
clout  is  a  straw  backed,  white  faced 
target  with  a  black  spot  in  the  center. 
It  is  30  inches  in  diameter  and  is  set  on 
the  ground  at  an  angle  of  60  degrees. 
2.    A  hit  in  the  clout. 

Cock  feather.  The  vane  that  stands  at  right 
angles  to  the  nock. 

Come.  A  bow  is  said  to  come  when  it  bends 
too  much  in  one  place. 

Composite  bow.  A  bow  made  of  three  layers 
of  materials,  usually  sinew  back,  wood 
center  and  horn  belly. 

Crest.  Colored  rings  painted  about  the  shaft 
of  an  arrow  above  the  feathers,  for 

Crossbow.  A  missive  weapon  formed  by  a 
bow  fixed  athwart  a  stock  in  which  there 
is  a  groove  or  barrel  to  direct  the  missile, 
a  notch  or  catch  to  hold  the  string  when 
the  bow  is  bent,  and  a  trigger  to  release 
it.     (Century  Dictionary.) 

Glossary  289 

Curl.  A  sudden  turn  in  the  grain  of  the 
wood  of  a  bow. 

Cut  the  gold.  An  expression  signifying  the 
apparent  dropping  across  the  gold  of  an 
arrow  which  falls  short. 

Cut  the  mark.  Similar  to  Cut  the  gold  but 
used  for  any  object  aimed  at,  as  in  rovers 
or  hunting. 

Damp  sap.  A  bluish  line  between  the  heart 
and  sap-wood  in  yew. 

Dead  loose.     A  sluggish  release. 

Dead  shaft.     An  arrow  of  dull,  heavy  flight. 

Direction.     Same  as  Line  of  aim. 

Direct  vision.  The  formation  of  the  sight 
image  at  the  macula  lutea.  Whatever 
is  seen  most  clearly  is  in  direct  vision. 

Double  round.  Two  identical  rounds  shot 
in  succession  and  the  results  added. 

Down  wind.  A  wind  blowing  from  the 
archer  to  the  target., 

Draw.     1.    To  pull  the  bowstring  back  as  in 
2.    The  distance  the  string  is  pulled. 

Draw  a  feather.  To  strip  the  web  from  the 
shaft  of  a  feather. 

290  American  Archery 

Drawing  arm.  The  arm  that  draws  the  string. 
Also  called  Shaft  arm. 

Drawing  fingers.  The  first  three  fingers  of 
the  drawing  hand. 

Drawing  hand.  The  hand  of  the  drawing 
arm.  The  right  hand  in  right  handed 
archers  and  the  left  in  left  handed.  Also 
called  Shaft  hand. 

Draw  through  a  bow.  To  draw  so  far  that 
the  pile  passes  the  belly. 

Drift.     Same  as  Windage. 

Elevation.  The  relative  height  of  the  pile  to 
the  nock  in  aiming  an  arrow. 

End.  1.  In  England,  three  arrows  shot  con- 

2.  In    America,    six    arrows    shot    con- 
secutively or  in  pairs  (threes). 

3.  The  position  of  a  mark. 

Eye.    The  upper  loop  of  a  string. 

Fast.  An  exclamation  used  as  a  warning  of 
danger,  as  is  "Fore"  in  golf. 

Feather.     1.    A  vane. 

2.  A  layer    f  the  grain  in  yew. 

3.  The  feathered  end  or  string  end  of  an 
arrow.     (Century  Dictionary.) 

Glossary  29 1 

4.  To  fit  with  a  feather  or  feathers,  as 
an  arrow.     (Century  Dictionary.) 

Feather  in.  To  imbed  an  arrow  in  its  mark 
as  far  as  the  feathers. 

Finger  tip.  A  leather  thimble  to  protect  a 
drawing  finger. 

Fish.  The  joint  of  the  two  limbs  of  a  yew 

Fish  tail.    A  staggering  arrow. 

Fistmele.  A  measure  of  6  inches.  It  is 
believed  by  many  to  be  the  correct 
distance  between  the  string  and  the  bent 
bow  and  is  usually  found  by  placing  the 
fist  upright  upon  the  inside  of  the  bow 
handle  and  raising  the  thumb. 

Fletch.  To  feather  an  arrow.  (Century 

Fletcher.     1.    A  maker  of  arrows. 

2.  One  who  feathers  arrows. 

3.  A  maker  of  bows  and  arrows.  (Cen- 
tury Dictionary.) 

Also  called  Arrowsmith. 

Flight  arrow.  A  light  arrow  for  flight  shoot- 

Flight  shot.  A  shot  for  great  distance  with- 
out regard  to  aim. 

292  American  Archery 

Follow  the  string.  An  expression  denoting 
the  permanent  set  or  curve  that  a  bow 
takes  on  from  being  bent  and  drawn. 

Footed  arrow.  An  arrow  whose  anterior 
portion  is  formed  of  a  piece  of  hard  wood 
spliced  to  the  main  part  of  the  shaft. 

Foot.  A  piece  of  hard  wood  spliced  on  the 
anterior  end  of  a  shaft  and  forming  an 
integral  part  of  it.  Also  called  pileing 
and  footing. 

Fret.  A  fault  in  the  wood  of  a  bow,  such  as  a 
chrysal  or  corroded  spot. 

Grip.     i.   The  handle  of  a  bow. 

2.    The  manner  of  grasping  a  bow. 

Gone.  An  arrow  is  gone  when  it  flies  above 
the  target. 

Handle.  The  part  of  a  bow  that  is  grasped 
in  the  hand. 

Hard  handled  bow.  A  bow  which  does  not 
bend  at  the  grip. 

Head.     Same  as  pile. 

He!  He!  The  time  honored  word  of  call 
used  by  archers  in  hailing  each  other 
from  a  distance.     (Dr.  Weston.) 

Hen  feathers.  The  two  vanes  that  lie  at  an 
angle  of  30  degrees  to  the  nock. 

Glossary  293 

High  feathered.     Having  long,  deep  feathers. 
Hit.     1.    To  strike  a  mark  with  an  arrow. 

2.    The  striking  of  a  mark  with  an  arrow. 

If  the  mark  be  a  target  the  arrow  must 

remain    in    it,    neither    rebounding    nor 

passing  through. 

Holding.  Keeping  an  arrow  fully  drawn  for 
a  moment  before  it  is  loosed. 

Home.     An  arrow  is  home  when  fully  drawn. 

Horn.     A  bow  tip. 

Horn  spoon.     1.    A  hit  in  the  petticoat. 
2.    The  petticoat. 

Hoyle-shooting.     Same  as  roving. 

Indirect  vision.  Formation  of  the  sight 
image  at  some  part  of  the  retina  other 
than  the  macula  lute  a,  (Century  Dic- 

In  game.    In  good  shooting  cue. 

Keeping  a  length.  Shooting  with  consist- 
ently correct  elevation  at  a  given  dis- 

Keeping  compass.     Same  as  keeping  a  length. 

Kick.  The  jar  to  the  hand  caused  by  a 
discharging  bow,  due  to  faulty  construc- 
tion of  the  weapon. 

294  American  Archery 

Lapping.  A  wrapping  of  thread  around  a 
bow  to  strengthen  it  or  around  a  string 
to  protect  it  from  abrasion.  Also  called 
Serving,  Whipping  and  Wrapping. 

Lay  the  body  in  the  bow.  An  old  English 
expression  which  suggests  that  drawing 
should  be  done  with  the  shoulders  as 
well  as  the  arms. 

Length.     A  distance  to  be  shot. 

Let  fly.     To  release  an  arrow. 

Line  of  aim.  The  vertical  plane  of  an  im- 
aginary line  from  the  archer's  eye  to  the 
centre  of  the  target.    Also  called  Direction. 

Longbow.  The  name  commonly  given  to 
the  bow  drawn  by  hand  and  discharging 
a  long  feathered  arrow,  as  distinguished 
from  crossbows  of  all  kinds,  especially  to 
bows  having  a  length  of  five  feet  or  over, 
as  the  bow  of  war  and  of  the  chase  of 
the  middle  ages  of  Europe,  those  of  some 
savage  tribes,  those  of  Japan,  etc.  (Cen- 
tury Dictionary.) 

Loose,  i.  To  release  the  string  when  fully 

2.   The   manner  of  releasing  the   string 
when  drawn. 

Glossary  295 

Low  feathered.  Having  short  shallow  fea- 

Mark.     1.    Anything  that  is  shot  at. 

2.    To  signal  results  in  clout  shooting. 

Marker.  A  man  who  stands  near  a  clout  to 
signal  to  the  archers  the  results  of  their 

Nock.  1.  The  groove  for  the  string  in  the 
tip  of  a  bow. 

2.  The  slot  in  the  end  of  an  arrow. 

3.  The  piece  of  hard  material  at  the 
end  of  an  arrow  which  contains  the  slot 
for  the  string.    Also  called  Arrow  horn. 

4.  The  act  of  slipping  the  loop  of  the 
string  into  a  nock. 

5.  The  act  of  fitting  an  arrow  to  the 

Nocking  point.    The  exact  place  on  the  string 

where  an  arrow  should  be  nocked,  often 

marked  with  thread  or  ink. 
Noose.     The  loop   at  the   lower  end   of   the 

Overbowed.      Using    a    bow    beyond    one's 


Overstrung.  Said  of  a  bow  whose  string  is 
too  short. 

296  American  Archery 

Pair.     In  archery  three  arrows,  not  two,  are 

called  a  pair. 
Paper  game.    Shooting  at  a  small  bit  of  paper, 

often  about  an  inch  in  diameter,  which 

is  pinned  to  a  butt. 
Penny.      A    measure    of   weight    for    arrows 

equal  to  7%  grains. 
Petticoat.     1.    A  hit  in  the  petticoat. 

2.    The  rim  of  the  target  outside  of  the 

white  ring.    It  has  no  value.    Also  called 

Horn  Spoon  and  Spoon. 
Piecing.     Same  as  Foot. 
Pile.     A  ferrule  covering  the  anterior  end  of 

an  arrow.  It  may  be  sharp  or  blunt  and 

made  of  any  hard  substance.   Also  called 

Heady  Tip  and  Point. 
Pin.     A  tiny  knot  in  yew  wood,  appearing  on 

the  surface  as  a  black  spot. 
Pinch.     Same  as  Chrysal. 
Play   in    the   hand.      Said    of   a   bow   which 

bends  at  the  grip. 
Point.     1.    Same  as  Pile. 

2.  A  unit  of  scoring. 

3.  A  unit  of  a  specified  total,  based  on 
the  highest  score  or  greatest  number  of 
hits  at  given  distances. 

Glossary  297 

Point  blank.  1.  Aim  taken  at  a  distance 
where  the  point  of  aim  and  centre  of  the 
target  coincide. 

2.  Aim  taken  at  a  distance  so  short  that 
the  arrow  flies  in  a  trajectory  that  is 
practically  flat. 

Point  of  aim.  An  object  so  situated  that  if 
the  tip  of  a  fully  drawn  arrow  be  brought 
into  the  imaginary  line  between  it  and 
the  eye,  that  arrow,  when  loosed,  if  all 
other  factors  be  perfect,  will  hit  the 
centre  of  the  target. 

Popinjay.  A  small  wooden  bird  on  the  top 
of  a  pole,  used  as  a  mark. 

Prick.     A  small  mark  on  a  butt. 

Prick  shooting.     Shooting  at  a  prick. 

Prince's  lengths.  The  three  distances  of  the 
York  round. 

Quartering  wind.  A  wind  blowing  obliquely 
across  the  range. 

Quiver.  1.  A  portable  receptacle  for  arrows, 
carried  attached  to  the  person  by  a 
strap  or  hook. 

2.  The  coming  to  rest  of  an  arrow  in 
what  it  hits.  For  example,  "The  arrow 
quivered  in  a  tree,"  means  that  it  stopped 
there,  not  that  it  trembled. 


American  Archery 

Range.     1.    A  shooting  ground. 

2.    A  length  or  distance  to  be  shot. 

Reflexed  bow.  A  bow  in  which  a  concave, 
obtuse  angle  is  formed  by  the  backs  of 
the  two  limbs  when  unstrung. 

Release.     Same  as  loose. 

Round.  A  prescribed  number  of  shots  at 
prescribed  distances.  There  are  ten 
recognized  rounds,  which  are  named  and 
constituted  as  follows: 

:.    American  Round 

30  arrows  at    60  yards 

30      ' 

'       "    So 

30      ' 

'       "    40 


Columbia  Round 

24       ' 

1       "     50 

24       « 

'       "    40 

24       ' 

'       "     30 


Hereford  Round 

48       ' 

1       "     80 

24       ' 

'       "    60 


National  Round 

48       ' 

'       "    60 

24       ' 

'       "    So 


Potomac  Round 

24       ' 

<       "     80 

24      ■ 

'       "    7o 

24      < 

4       "    60 


St.  George's  Round 

36      ' 

'       "  100 

36      ■ 

1       "    80 

36      < 

4       "    60 


St.  Leonard's  Round 

36      ' 

1       "     80 

39      ' 

1       "    60 

(Originally  it  was 

75      ' 

1       "    60 


Team  Round,  Men 

96      ' 

4       "    60 


Team  Round,  Women 

96      ■ 

'       "    so 


York  Round 

72      ■ 

'       "  100 

48      ' 

1       "     80 

24      ' 

1       "    60 


>.  5,  6  and  7  of  the  above  are 


r  obsolete. 

Glossary  299 

Rovers.  An  archery  pastime  which  consists 
in  shooting  at  one  mark  after  another, 
each  mark  being  at  a  distance  from  the 
last.  It  may  be  played  over  a  prescribed 
course  in  a  manner  similar  to  golf  or  the 
marks  may  be  selected  at  random. 

Rover's  mark.     A  mark  shot  at  in  rovers. 

Roving.     Playing  rovers,  not  simply  roaming. 

Self  arrow.  An  arrow  made  of  a  single  piece 
of  wood,  not  footed. 

Self  bow.  A  bow  each  limb  of  which  is 
made  of  a  single,  unbacked  piece  of  wood. 
It  may  or  may  not  be  fished  at  the  grip. 

Serving.     Same  as  Lapping. 

Set  the  shaft  in  the  bow.  To  draw  it  so  far 
that  the  tip  catches  on  the  belly. 

Shaft.      1.    The   wooden   part   of   an    arrow. 
Also  called  Stele. 
2.    An  arrow. 

Shaft  arm.    The  drawing  arm. 

Shaft  hand.     The  drawing  hand. 

Shaftment.  The  part  of  an  arrow  where  the 
feathers  are. 

Shake.     A  longitudinal  crack  in  wood. 

Sharp  loose.    A  quick  release. 

300  American  Archery 

Sheaf  of  arrows.     Twenty-four  arrows  in  a 

case.     Used  in  military  archery. 
Shilling.     A  measure  of  weight  for  arrows,  of 

87^4  grains. 
Shooting    glove.       1.    In    Scotland    a    large 

glove  for  the  drawing  hand  with  the  first 

three   fingers   reinforced   on   the   palmar 

surface   and   a   pocket   in   the   back  for 

extra  strings. 

2.    Any    glove    for    the    drawing    hand, 

usually  having  the  tips  of  the  drawing 

fingers  reinforced. 
Shoot  in  a  bow.     The  old   English  way  of 

saying,  "  Shoot  a  bow." 
Side  wind.     A  wind  blowing  at  right  angles 

to  the  line  of  aim. 
Sink  a  bow.     To  reduce  its  weight. 
Slash.     To  loose  in  a  quick,  plucking  manner. 
Snake.     1.    An    arrow    buried    in    the    grass, 

lying  flat  to  the  ground. 

2.    For  an  arrow  to  bury  itself  in  the 

Spell.     A  rising  of  the  ends  of  the  grain  in 

the  wood  of  a  bow. 
Splinter.     A  small,  flat  sliver  of  wood  split 

from  the  back  of  a  bow  but  still  attached 

at  one  end. 

Glossary  30 1 

Spoon.  Same  as  Horn  spoon  and  Petticoat. 
Spine.  The  degree  of  stiffness  of  an  arrow. 
Stagger.     To  wobble.     Said  of  an  arrow  in 

flight.  Also  called  Wag. 
Standard  yard.     A  measure  of  36  inches. 
Stele.     The  wooden  part  of  an  arrow. 
Stopping.     The  solid  part  of  a  pile. 
Sweet.     Said  of  a  bow  which  does  not  kick. 

Stave  or  Bowstave.  A  long,  slender  piece  of 
wood  of  which  a  bow  may  be  made. 

Tab.  A  flat  piece  of  leather  large  enough  to 
cover  the  palmar  surface  of  the  drawing 
fingers  and  used  to  prevent  abrasion  of 
the  skin.  It  is  kept  in  place  by  sticking 
the  first  and  third  fingers  through  hole. 
Between  the  first  and  second  fingers  is 
a  slot  for  the  nock  of  the  arrow. 

Tackle.     All  the  equipment  of  an  archer. 

Tassel.  A  tassel,  usually  made  of  green 
worsted,  suspended  from  the  archer's 
belt  to  wipe  his  arrows  with. 

Tiller.  A  stick  with  notches  in  the  side  and 
ends,  used  to  hold  a  bow  drawn  while 
it  is  being  made  or  repaired.  One  end  is 
placed  against  the  inside  of  the  handle 

302  American  Archery 

and  the  string  is  caught  in  a  notch  at 

the  desired  distance. 
Tillering.    The  act  of  using  a  tiller,  including 

the  scraping  of  the  bow. 
Tip.     i.    A  pile. 

2.  A  reinforcement  of  leather  on  the 
fingers  of  a  shooting  glove. 

3.  To  apply  such  reinforcements. 

4.  A  thimble,  or  similar  device  of  leather 
or  other  material,  for  each  of  the  shooting 

5.  A  bow  horn. 

Toxophilite.  A  student  of  archery;  one  who 
practices  archery;  one  who  studies  the 
history  and  archeology  of  archery.  (Cen- 
tury Dictionary.) 

Toxophilitic.  Relating  or  pertaining  to  arch- 
ery or  to  the  study  of  archery. 

Trajectory.     The  path  of  an  arrow  in  the  air. 

Turtle-back  shooting.  Shooting  high  in  the 
air  so  that  the  arrow,  on  returning,  may 
hit  a  target  laid  flat  on  the  ground.  So 
called  because  South  American  Indians 
are  said  to  shoot  turtles  in  that  way. 

Underbowed.  Using  a  bow  beneath  one's 

Glossary  303 

Underhand  shooting.  Shooting  with  the 
bow  held  so  that  the  point  of  aim  is 
seen  under  the  bow  hand. 

Understrung.  Said  of  a  bow  whose  string  is 
too  long. 

Up  wind.  A  wind  blowing  from  the  target 
to  the  archer. 

Vane.  A  piece  of  feather  tied  or  glued  to  the 
shaft  near  the  nock  to  direct  the  flight 
of  an  arrow.  Three  are  usually  placed  on 
each  arrow. 

Wag.     Same  as  Stagger. 

Weight.  I.  The  avoirdupois  weight  of  an 
arrow  expressed  in  grains  or  in  shillings 
and  pence. 

2.  The  force  required  to  draw  a  bow  the 
length  of  its  arrow.  For  example,  a  man's 
bow  weighing  46  pounds  is  one  whose 
string  will  be  drawn  28  inches  from  the 
back  of  the  handle  by  a  46  pound  stress. 

Weight  in  hand.  The  avoirdupois  weight  of 
a  bow. 

Wen.     An  excrescence  in  the  wood  of  a  bow 

Whale  backed  bow.  A  bow  whose  belly  is 
almost  wedge  shaped.     (Duff.) 

Whipping.     Same  as  Lapping. 

304  American  Archery 

Wide.     An  arrow  is  wide  when  it  flies  to  one 

side  or  the  other  of  the  target. 
Windage.     1.    The  influence  of  the  wind  in 

deflecting  an  arrow. 

2.    The  extent  of  such  deflection. 

Also  called  Drift. 
Wrapping.     Same  as  Lapping. 

James   Duff 

Bowyer    and    Fletcher 

130  Zabriskie  Street 

Jersey  City,  New  Jersey 

Bows,  Arrows  and  Accessories 

made  especially  to  order 
Material  and  Workmanship  Guaranteed 

H.  H.  McChesney 

Bowyer  and  Fletcher 

2414  Portland  Avenue 

Minneapolis,  Minnesota 
Bows,  Arrows  and  Accessories 

made  especially  to  order 
Material  and  Workmanship  Guaranteed 

This  Book 


is  an  official  publication  of  the 

National  Archery  Association  of  the 

United  States 

It  is  for  sale  by  the  Association 

Price  $2.50  a  copy 

Address  orders  to  the 

Publication  Committee 

National    Archery   Association 

1003  Huntington  Bank  Building 

Columbus,  Ohio,  U.  S.  A. 


Aiming,    25. 

Aim,  point  of,    27. 

Amaranth,    251. 

American  round,    51. 

Antient  Scorton  arrow,    146,    147. 

Archers'  Manual,   9. 

Archers,  Royal  Company  of,    152. 

Archery,  American,  Hisotory  of,    7. 

club,  to  form,   63. 

correct,  study  of,    21. 

Association,  Chicago,    II. 

Association,  National,   47. 

Association,  Eastern,    103. 

Belgian,    178. 

French,    178. 

The  Witchery  of,  II. 
Arrow,  Antient  Scorton,  146,  147. 

Duff,   59. 

feathers,    264. 

Maid  Marian,   61,    102. 

making,    247. 

nocks,    34. 

pile,  259. 
Arrowhead,    176. 
Arrows,   33. 

feathering,    265. 

hunting,    277. 

Reddendo,    152. 

sizing,   264. 

weights  of,   35. 

woods  for,    250,   251. 
Artillery,   33. 
Ascham,  Roger,    21. 

jo8  Index 


Backed  bow,    215,    237. 
Beefwood,    25 1 . 
Beginners,  hints  to,   40. 
Belgian  Archery,    178. 
Black  locust  wood,    197. 
Bow,  backed,    215,    237. 

composite,    280. 

for  flight  shooting,    161. 

Persian,    161. 

rawhide  backed,     240. 

selecting,    37. 

Turkish,    161,    163. 

weight  of,    37. 
Bowmaking,    192,    220. 
Bowstring,    244. 
Bracer,   37. 
Bugle,    Pearsall,    59. 

Chicago  Archery  Association,    1 1 
Club,  Archery,  to  form,   63. 
Columbia  round,    51. 
Composite  bows,    161. 
Constitution  of  the  N.  A.  A.,   47. 
Cup,  Chicago,    100. 

Clan  McLeod,    59,   97,    101. 

Jiles,    59,   98,   99,    100. 

Ovington,    59,    101. 

Peacock,   61,    102. 

Weston,   62,    101. 


Dallin  Medal,   3. 
Deming,  Frederick,    173. 
Drawing,    24. 

Index  jog 

Eastern  Archery  Association,    103 
Ebony,    251. 

Elmer  wooden  spoon,    59,    101. 
Equipment,    33. 

Feather  glue,    275. 
Feathers,  cutting,    266. 

dyeing,    264. 

for  arrows,    34,    264. 
Feats  of  skill,    114. 
Fibre,  wood,  for  arrow  nocks,    256. 
Finger,  The  "Shirking  First,"    30. 

tips,    37. 
Fish  joint,    212,   226. 
Flight  arrows,    164. 

shooting,    160. 
Ford,  Horace  A.,   69. 
French  Archery,    178. 

Game  shooting,    134,    140,    141,    149,    150. 
Glass  ball  shooting,    149,    151. 
Glossary  of  terms,    285. 
Glove,  shooting,    37,    45. 
Glue  for  feathers,    275. 

spirit,    275. 
Grip,    24. 


Hiawatha's  feat,    141. 
Hints  to  beginners,   40. 
Holding,   29. 
Hosking,  A.  N.,   3. 

3io  Index 

Indian  Boy  trophy,    4,    61,    100,    101,    102. 
Isinglass,  Russian,    275. 
Ishi,    144. 

Lancewood,    183. 
Le  Coq,    181. 
Lemon  wood,    183. 
Loose,  primary,  139. 

tertiary,    134. 
Loosing,   30. 


Mahmoud  Effendi,    161,    280. 
Mahogany,    251. 
Medal,  Beach,   61. 

Christian  Science  Monitor,   99,    102. 

Dallin,   4,   61,    100,    101,    102. 

Duff,    101. 

Maurice  Thompson,    58,    100. 

Potomac,   58,    100. 

Sidway,   61. 

Spalding,   58,   61,    100. 
Mulberry  wood,    197. 


National  Archery  Association  of  the  United  States,  47. 
National  round,   51. 
Nocking,   23. 
Nocks,  arrow,   34. 

Osage  Orange  wood,    183. 

Index  311 

Pausing,    31. 

Peale,  Titian  Ramsay,   8. 

Persian  bows,    161. 

Pile,  arrow,    259. 

Point  of  aim,    27,   42,    171. 

Points,  scoring  by,    156. 

Pope,  Dr.  Saxton  T.,  composite  bow,    280. 

"  Seven-arrows-in-the-air",    141 . 
Popinjay,    180. 

Quiver,    38. 

Rawhide  backing,    35,    240. 

Reddendo  arrows,    152. 

Robin  Hood,    7. 

Rosewood,    251. 

Rounds,  all,  denned,   51. 

Royal  Company  of  Archers,    152. 

Russian  isinglass,    275. 

Scores,  American,   67,    78,    85. 

English,   69. 
Scorton  arrow,    146,    147. 
"  Seven-arrows-in-the-air",    141 . 
Shilling,  unit  of  weight,    35. 
Simon,  Ingo,    161,    280. 
Sizing  arrows,    264. 
Snakewood,    251. 
Spirit  glue,    275. 
Spoon,  Elmer  wooden,    59,    101 
Stand,   target,    39. 

312  Index 

Standing,   22. 
Strings,   38. 

Target,    39,    52. 

stand,    39. 
Terms,  Glossary  of,    285. 
Thompson,  Maurice,    10,    149,    151. 
Thompson,  Will  H.,    10. 
Toxophilus,  Ascham's,    21. 
Trophy,  Jessop,   61. 

Weston,   62,    10 1. 
Turkish  bows,    161,    163,    280. 


United  Bowman  of  Philadelphia,    8. 


Vulcanized  fiber,  for  arrow  nocks,    256. 


Washaba  wood,    183. 
Weight  of  bows,   37. 
Witchery  of  Archery,  The,    1 1 . 
Wood  fiber,  for  arrow  nocks,    256. 
Woods  for  arrows,    250,    251. 
for  bows,    183. 

Yew,    183,    195,    220. 
York  round,   51. 

RETURN     Government  Documents  Department 
TO—" *     350  Main  Library  642-2568 





2    198S 


7\Ub  5  0  1965 

UNIV.  Ut-  UAL1F-  BE  ffi 

APR  14 1991 

gS^'ft  «i 


FORM  NO.  DD7.  68m.  1/82  BERKELEY,  CA  94720 


YC  8792